Archivio per marzo 2012

30
Mar
12

Il delitto del cervello

Via Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

L’immagine di uomo adottata dal diritto, quella cioè di persona libera, razionale, consapevole e padrona delle proprie azioni, viene oggi messa radicalmente in discussione dalla ricerca neuroscientifica.

Via www.codiceedizioni.it

30
Mar
12

L’animale sociale

Via Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Le discipline che studiano il cervello umano – dalle neuroscienze alla sociologia, dall’economia comportamentale alla psicologia – hanno ormai scardinato la concezione secolare dell’uomo come entità divisa: da un lato la ragione a comandare,…

Via www.codiceedizioni.it

30
Mar
12

Brain drain | The Spectator

Via Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Neuroscience wants to be the answer to everything. The idea that neuroscience solve it all is the vision of those who have not understood and still faces problems with reductionist premises. If a second addresses the neuroscience perspective, we realize that these help a fruitful review of how far acquired, freeing it from the limitations and errors induced cognitive premises now manifestly fallacious.

Via www.spectator.co.uk

29
Mar
12

Michael Gazzaniga – The New Cognitive Neurosciences Second Edition

Via Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Here we are on the brink of the twenty-first century. While the history of neurological andpsychological research goes back at least two hundred years, the heavy work commencedin the twentieth century. In a hundred short years the basic outlines of the nervous systemhave been articulated. The biochemical, physiological, pharmacological, and structuralfeatures of the vertebrate brain have been described and in many instances defined. Sotoo have the basic perceptual, emotional, mnemonic, attentional, and cognitive functions.In the past 20 years these fundamentals have accelerated at an exponential rate, leaving the field of brain and cognitive science swamped with riches of information

Via www.scribd.com

29
Mar
12

The Brain and Emotion

Via Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

What motivates us to work for particular rewards such as food when we are hungry, or water when we are thirsty? How do these motivational control systems operate to ensure that we eat approximately the correct amount of food to maintain our body weight or to
replenish our thirst? What factors account for the over-eating and obesity which some humans show?
The issues of what motivation is, and how it is controlled, are introduced in this book

Via www.scribd.com

29
Mar
12

Reward Decision Making

Via Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

While cells in many brain regions cells are responsive to reward, the cortical-basal ganglia cir-cuit is at the heart of the reward system. The key structures in this network are: the anteriorcingulate cortex, the orbital prefrontal cortex, the ventral striatum, the ventral pallidum, andthe midbrain dopamine neurons. In addition, other structures including the dorsal prefrontalcortex, amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, lateral habenular n., and specific brainstem struc-tures, such as the pedunculopontine n. and the raphe n., are key components in regulatingthe reward circuit. Connectivity between these areas forms a complex neural network that istopographically organized, thus maintaining functional continuity through the cortico-basalganglia pathway. However, the reward circuit does not work in isolation. The network alsocontains specific regions in which convergent pathways provide an anatomical substrate forintegration across functional domains.

Via www.scribd.com

26
Mar
12

Glimcher P Neuroeconomics Decision Making and the Brain

Via Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Over the first decade of its existence, neuroeconomics has engendered raucous debates of two kinds. First, scholars within each of its parent disciplines have argued over whether this synthetic field offers benefits to their particular parent discipline. Second, scholars within the emerging field itself have argued over what form neuroeconomics should take. To understand these debates, however, a reader must understand both the intellectual sources of neuroeconomics and the backgrounds and methods of practicing neuroeconomists. Neuroeconomics has its origins in two places; in events following the neoclassical economic revolution of the 1930s, and in the birth of cognitive neuroscience during the 1990s. We therefore begin this brief history with a review of the neoclassical revolution and the birth of cognitive neuroscience.

Via www.scribd.com

24
Mar
12

Bounded Rationality and Criminal Investigations: Has Tunnel Vision Been Wrongfully Convicted?

Via Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Conclusion:  there is a gap between the reality of how police officers make decisions
and how the criminal justice system (and the general public) expects them to make decisions.
Given the uncertain, dynamic, and pressure-filled nature of criminal investigations and the demands of the adversarial justice system, it is not reasonable to recommend that police officers use “optimal” decision-making strategies. Just like a substantial number of psychological researchers over the past several decades, those who cite tunnel vision as a cause of wrongful convictions have made a very important oversight – investigative decisions are made by humans in the real world, not by supercomputers in some ideal place where time, knowledge, and resources are unlimited. Decision-making strategies that ignore information, including the
heuristics that comprise tunnel vision, are thus more psychologically and ecologically plausible than those that strive for optimality.

Via www.mun.ca

24
Mar
12

Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart – by Gerd Gigerenzer, Peter M. Todd

Via Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

To survive in a world where knowledge is limited, time is pressing, and deep thought is often an unattainable luxury, decision-makers must use bounded rationality. In this precis of Simple heuristics that make us smart, we explore fast and frugal heuristics—simple rules for making decisions with realistic mental resources. These heuristics enable smart choices to be made quickly and with a minimum of information by exploiting the way that information is structured in particular environments. Despite limiting information search and processing, simple heuristics perform comparably to more complex algorithms, particularly when generalizing to new data—simplicity leads to robustness.

Via www-abc.mpib-berlin.mpg.de

24
Mar
12

bounded rationality » Economic Sociology

Via Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Brooke Harrington explores the social underpinnings of money and markets. Behavioral finance has exploded in popularity not just because it’s interesting—regular finance is interesting, too—but because it combines that interest factor with an abundance of what one scholar called “descriptive charm.”

There is something strangely entertaining in reading about the economic foibles of others: one part schadenfreude, plus one part abashed recognition of one’s own past mistakes—mixed with quiet relief to find oneself with lots of company in making those mistakes.

Via thesocietypages.org




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