Archivio per maggio 2012

31
Mag
12

Emergence – Complexity from Simplicity, Order from Chaos (1 of 2)

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Emergent complexity can arise from simple interactions between agents following rules. The complexity that arises is suprising and challenges our assumptions about whether order comes from the top or the bottom. Life and consciousness are examples of emergent phenomena.

An emergent behavior is that of social groups, an aspect that classical economics ignores and simplify in the rational behavior.

See on www.youtube.com

31
Mag
12

1. Introduction to Human Behavioral Biology

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

(March 29, 2010) Stanford professor Robert Sapolsky gave the opening lecture of the course entitled Human Behavioral Biology and explains the basic premise of the course and how he aims to avoid categorical thinking. Stanford University

See on www.youtube.com

31
Mag
12

22. Emergence and Complexity

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Professor Robert Sapolsky gives a lecture on emergence and complexity. He details how a small difference at one place in nature can have a huge effect on a system as time goes on. He calls this idea fractal magnification and applies it to many different systems that exist throughout nature (May 21, 2010)

See on www.youtube.com

30
Mag
12

Emotions promote social interaction by synchronizing brain activity across individuals

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Sharing others’ emotional states may facilitate understanding their intentions and actions. Here we show that networks of brain areas “tick together” in participants who are viewing similar emotional events in a movie. Participants’ brain activity was measured with functional MRI while they watched movies depicting unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant emotions. After scanning, participants watched the movies again and continuously rated their experience of pleasantness–unpleasantness (i.e., valence) and of arousal–calmness. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to derive multisubject voxelwise similarity measures [intersubject correlations (ISCs)] of functional MRI data. Valence and arousal time series were used to predict the moment-to-moment ISCs computed using a 17-s moving average. During movie viewing, participants’ brain activity was synchronized in lower- and higher-order sensory areas and in corticolimbic emotion circuits. Negative valence was associated with increased ISC in the emotion-processing network (thalamus, ventral striatum, insula) and in the default-mode network (precuneus, temporoparietal junction, medial prefrontal cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus). High arousal was associated with increased ISC in the somatosensory cortices and visual and dorsal attention networks comprising the visual cortex, bilateral intraparietal sulci, and frontal eye fields. Seed-voxel–based correlation analysis confirmed that these sets of regions constitute dissociable, functional networks. We propose that negative valence synchronizes individuals’ brain areas supporting emotional sensations and understanding of another’s actions, whereas high arousal directs individuals’ attention to similar features of the environment. By enhancing the synchrony of brain activity across individuals, emotions may promote social interaction and facilitate interpersonal understanding.

See on www.pnas.org

30
Mag
12

Applying behavioural insights to reduce fraud, error and debt

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

 

 

Public sector fraud, error and debt cost the UK government billions of pounds each year, costs that are borne by law-abiding taxpayers and firms. Insights from behavioural science can form an integral part of the government strategy to reduce this cost and the tax gap. 

This document is intended to offer a practical guide to those who design and administer taxes and fines, and whose job it is to make such systems simple and easy to use for businesses and citizens. This is the first time that the Government has explicitly sought to draw upon behavioural insights to tackle fraud, error and debt in a systematic way. The insights outlined in this document, applied in a range of different contexts and settings, show that not only is it possible to apply behavioural insights to reduce fraud, error and debt, but also that it can be done in a highly cost-effective way. 

Part 1 summarises the academic evidence and sets out seven key insights that can be applied in practice. It illustrates that behavioural insights can offer useful new perspectives on these familiar challenges, as well as the potential to move interventions ‘upstream’ by encouraging early and easy payments to prevent debts accruing in the first place. Part 2 describes eight trials which demonstrate that it is possible – and important – for public services to adopt a ‘test, learn, adapt’ approach. This is important not only because the effectiveness of interventions will depend heavily on the context in which they are applied, but also because the use of such methods ultimately rests on public acceptability and trials allow this to be tested. Policymakers should innovate, but should do so with humility about the limits of current knowledge, and with respect for what is acceptable and helpful to the public whom we serve. 

We would like to thank colleagues in HMRC, the Ministry of Justice, DVLA, HMCTS, Manchester City Council and local government for their help in conducting the trials and producing this document. We would also ask you – the reader – to help to improve it, and our collective understanding, by sharing results that you may have or trials that you may be undertaking. 

See on update.cabinetoffice.gov.uk

30
Mag
12

Mental Accounting and Consumer Choice – Richard Thaler

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

A new model of consumer behavior is developed using a hybrid of cognitive psychology and microeconomics. The development of the model starts with the mental coding of combinations of gains and losses using the prospect theory value function. Then the evaluation of purchases is modeled using the new concept of “transaction utility.” The household budgeting process is also incorporated to complete the characterization of mental accounting. Several implications to marketing, particularly in the area of pricing, are developed.

See on www.tinbergen.nl

30
Mag
12

Mental Accounting and Consumer Choice Richard – H. Thaler

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Anew model of consumer behavior is developed using a hybrid of cognitive psychology and microeconomics.

The development of the model starts with the mental coding of combinations of gains and losses using the prospect theory value function. Then the evaluation of purchases is modeled using the new concept of “transaction utility.” The household budgeting process is also incorporated to complete the characterization of mental accounting. Several implications to marketing, particularly in the area of pricing, are developed.

This article was originally published in Marketing Science, Volume 4, Issue 3, pages 199–214, in 1985.

See on www.behaviourlibrary.com




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