Archivio per agosto 2013

31
Ago
13

Consciousness in humans and non-human animals: Recent advances and future directions

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

This joint article reflects the authors’ personal views regarding noteworthy advances in the neuroscience of consciousness in the last ten years, and suggests what we feel may be promising future directions. (…) we summarize recent advances in our understanding of subjectivity in humans and other animals, including empirical, applied, technical and conceptual insights. These include the evidence for the importance of fronto-parietal connectivity and of feedback processes, both of which enable information to travel across distant cortical areas effectively, as well as numerous dissociations between consciousness and cognitive functions, such as attention, in humans. In addition, we describe the development of mental imagery paradigms, which made it possible to identify covert awareness in non-responsive subjects. Non-human animal consciousness research has also witnessed substantial advances on the specific role of cortical areas and higher order thalamus for consciousness, thanks to important technological advances. In addition, much progress has been made in the understanding of non-vertebrate cognition relevant to possible conscious states. Finally, major advances have been made in theories of consciousness, and also in their comparison with the available evidence. Along with reviewing these findings, each author suggests future avenues for research in their field of investigation.

Consciousness in humans and non-human animals: Recent advances and future directions.
Melanie Boly, Anil K. Seth, Melanie Wilke, Paul Ingmundson, Bernard Baars, Steven Laureys, David Edelman and Naotsugu Tsuchiya

Front. Psychol. | http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00625

See on frontiersin.org

31
Ago
13

Consciousness in humans and non-human animals: Recent advances and future directions

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

This joint article reflects the authors’ personal views regarding noteworthy advances in the neuroscience of consciousness in the last ten years, and suggests what we feel may be promising future directions. (…) we summarize recent advances in our understanding of subjectivity in humans and other animals, including empirical, applied, technical and conceptual insights. These include the evidence for the importance of fronto-parietal connectivity and of feedback processes, both of which enable information to travel across distant cortical areas effectively, as well as numerous dissociations between consciousness and cognitive functions, such as attention, in humans. In addition, we describe the development of mental imagery paradigms, which made it possible to identify covert awareness in non-responsive subjects. Non-human animal consciousness research has also witnessed substantial advances on the specific role of cortical areas and higher order thalamus for consciousness, thanks to important technological advances. In addition, much progress has been made in the understanding of non-vertebrate cognition relevant to possible conscious states. Finally, major advances have been made in theories of consciousness, and also in their comparison with the available evidence. Along with reviewing these findings, each author suggests future avenues for research in their field of investigation.

 

Consciousness in humans and non-human animals: Recent advances and future directions.
Melanie Boly, Anil K. Seth, Melanie Wilke, Paul Ingmundson, Bernard Baars, Steven Laureys, David Edelman and Naotsugu Tsuchiya

Front. Psychol. | http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00625

See on www.frontiersin.org

31
Ago
13

UCLA researcher invents new tools to manage ‘information overload’ threatening neuroscience

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Before the digital age, neuroscientists got their information in the library like the rest of us. But the explosion of neuroscience research has resulted in the publication of nearly 2 million papers — more data than any researcher can read and absorb in a lifetime.

 That’s why a UCLA team has invented research maps. Easily accessible through an online app, the maps help neuroscientists quickly scan what is already known and plan their next study. The Aug. 8 edition of the journal Neuron describes these new tools.  "Information overload is the elephant in the room that most neuroscientists pretend to ignore,“ said principal investigator Alcino Silva, a professor of neurobiology at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and professor of psychiatry at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at UCLA. "Without a way to organize the literature, we risk missing key discoveries and duplicating earlier experiments. Research maps will enable neuroscientists to quickly clarify what ground has already been covered and to fully grasp its meaning for future studies.”

See on newsroom.ucla.edu

31
Ago
13

UCLA researcher invents new tools to manage ‘information overload’ threatening neuroscience

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Before the digital age, neuroscientists got their information in the library like the rest of us. But the explosion of neuroscience research has resulted in the publication of nearly 2 million papers — more data than any researcher can read and absorb in a lifetime.

 That’s why a UCLA team has invented research maps. Easily accessible through an online app, the maps help neuroscientists quickly scan what is already known and plan their next study. The Aug. 8 edition of the journal Neuron describes these new tools.  “Information overload is the elephant in the room that most neuroscientists pretend to ignore,” said principal investigator Alcino Silva, a professor of neurobiology at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and professor of psychiatry at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at UCLA. “Without a way to organize the literature, we risk missing key discoveries and duplicating earlier experiments. Research maps will enable neuroscientists to quickly clarify what ground has already been covered and to fully grasp its meaning for future studies.”

See on newsroom.ucla.edu

31
Ago
13

Controlling Self-Organizing Dynamics on Networks Using Models that Self-Organize

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Controlling self-organizing systems is challenging because the system responds to the controller. Here, we develop a model that captures the essential self-organizing mechanisms of Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpiles on networks, a self-organized critical (SOC) system. This model enables studying a simple control scheme that determines the frequency of cascades and that shapes systemic risk. We show that optimal strategies exist for generic cost functions and that controlling a subcritical system may drive it to criticality. This approach could enable controlling other self-organizing systems.

 

Controlling Self-Organizing Dynamics on Networks Using Models that Self-Organize

Pierre-André Noël, Charles D. Brummitt, and Raissa M. D’Souza

Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 078701 (2013)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.078701

See on prl.aps.org

31
Ago
13

Controlling Self-Organizing Dynamics on Networks Using Models that Self-Organize

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Controlling self-organizing systems is challenging because the system responds to the controller. Here, we develop a model that captures the essential self-organizing mechanisms of Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpiles on networks, a self-organized critical (SOC) system. This model enables studying a simple control scheme that determines the frequency of cascades and that shapes systemic risk. We show that optimal strategies exist for generic cost functions and that controlling a subcritical system may drive it to criticality. This approach could enable controlling other self-organizing systems.

Controlling Self-Organizing Dynamics on Networks Using Models that Self-Organize

Pierre-André Noël, Charles D. Brummitt, and Raissa M. D’Souza

Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 078701 (2013)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.078701

See on prl.aps.org

30
Ago
13

The psychological poverty trap

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

The poor aren’t less able, they’re distracted, says poverty expert Eldar Shafir. Privileged people subjected to the same conditions would also make bad decisions. The poor often behave in less capable ways, which can further perpetuate poverty. We hypothesize that poverty directly impedes cognitive function and present two studies that test this hypothesis. First, we experimentally induced thoughts about finances and found that this reduces cognitive performance among poor but not in well-off participants. Second, we examined the cognitive function of farmers over the planting cycle. We found that the same farmer shows diminished cognitive performance before harvest, when poor, as compared with after harvest, when rich. This cannot be explained by differences in time available, nutrition, or work effort. Nor can it be explained with stress: Although farmers do show more stress before harvest, that does not account for diminished cognitive performance. Instead, it appears that poverty itself reduces cognitive capacity. We suggest that this is because poverty-related concerns consume mental resources, leaving less for other tasks. These data provide a previously unexamined perspective and help explain a spectrum of behaviors among the poor. We discuss some implications for poverty policy.

See on haaretz.com




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agosto: 2013
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