Archivio per novembre 2013

29
Nov
13

The dual process account of reasoning: historical roots, problems and perspectives

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond
Abstract

Despite the great effort that has been dedicated to the attempt to redefine expected utility theory on the grounds of new assumptions, modifying or moderating some axioms, none of the alternative theories propounded so far had a statistical confirmation over the full domain of applicability. Moreover, the discrepancy between prescriptions and behaviors is not limited to expected utility theory. In two other fundamental fields, probability and logic, substantial evidence shows that human activities deviate from the prescriptions of the theoretical models. The paper suggests that the discrepancy cannot be ascribed to an imperfect axiomatic description of human choice, but to some more general features of human reasoning and assumes the “dual-process account of reasoning” as a promising explanatory key. This line of thought is based on the distinction between the process of deliberate reasoning and that of intuition; where in a first approximation, “intuition” denotes a mental activity largely automatized and inaccessible from conscious mental activity. The analysis of the interactions between these two processes provides the basis for explaining the persistence of the gap between normative and behavioral patterns. This view will be explored in the following pages: central consideration will be given to the problem of the interactions between rationality and intuition, and the correlated “modularity” of the thought.

See on ideas.repec.org

29
Nov
13

The dual process account of reasoning: historical roots, problems and perspectives

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond
Abstract

Despite the great effort that has been dedicated to the attempt to redefine expected utility theory on the grounds of new assumptions, modifying or moderating some axioms, none of the alternative theories propounded so far had a statistical confirmation over the full domain of applicability. Moreover, the discrepancy between prescriptions and behaviors is not limited to expected utility theory. In two other fundamental fields, probability and logic, substantial evidence shows that human activities deviate from the prescriptions of the theoretical models. The paper suggests that the discrepancy cannot be ascribed to an imperfect axiomatic description of human choice, but to some more general features of human reasoning and assumes the “dual-process account of reasoning” as a promising explanatory key. This line of thought is based on the distinction between the process of deliberate reasoning and that of intuition; where in a first approximation, “intuition” denotes a mental activity largely automatized and inaccessible from conscious mental activity. The analysis of the interactions between these two processes provides the basis for explaining the persistence of the gap between normative and behavioral patterns. This view will be explored in the following pages: central consideration will be given to the problem of the interactions between rationality and intuition, and the correlated “modularity” of the thought.

See on ideas.repec.org

29
Nov
13

Relationships and Unethical Behavior: A Social Network Perspective

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond
Abstract

Recent models of unethical behavior have begun to examine the combination of characteristics of individuals, issues, and organizations. We extend this examination by addressing a largely ignored perspective that focuses on the relationships among actors. Drawing on social network analysis, we generate propositions concerning types of relationships (strength, multiplexity, asymmetry, and status) and the structure of relationships (structural holes, centrality, and density). We also consider the combination of the type and structure of relationships and how this embeddedness perspective relates to social contagion and conspiracies.

 
See on amr.aom.org

29
Nov
13

Relationships and Unethical Behavior: A Social Network Perspective

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond
Abstract

Recent models of unethical behavior have begun to examine the combination of characteristics of individuals, issues, and organizations. We extend this examination by addressing a largely ignored perspective that focuses on the relationships among actors. Drawing on social network analysis, we generate propositions concerning types of relationships (strength, multiplexity, asymmetry, and status) and the structure of relationships (structural holes, centrality, and density). We also consider the combination of the type and structure of relationships and how this embeddedness perspective relates to social contagion and conspiracies.

 
See on amr.aom.org

29
Nov
13

Theory of Mind and Empathic Explanations of Machiavellianism

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond
Abstract:We study theory of mind (ToM) and empathic underpinnings of Machiavellianism by use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, where account managers are used as participants in 3 studies. Study 1 finds evidence for activation of the medial prefrontal cortex, left and right temporo-parietal junction, and left and right precuneus regions; all five regions are negatively correlated with Machiavellianism, suggesting that Machiavellians are less facile than non-Machiavellians with ToM skills. Study 2 presents evidence for activation of the left and right pars opercularis, left and right insula, and left precuneus regions; the former four regions of the motor neuron system were positively associated, and the latter negatively associated, with Machiavellianism, implying that Machiavellians resonate more readily with the emotions of others than non-Machiavellians. This is the first study to our knowledge to show a negative correlation between perspective taking and emotional sharing in empathic processes in general and Machiavellianism in particular. Study 3 tests implications of managerial control on both performance and organizational citizenship behaviors, as moderated by Machiavellianism in the field. Our study grounds the functioning of Machiavellianism in organizations in basic neuroscience processes, resolves some long-standing ambiguities with self-report investigations, and points to conditions under which Machiavellianism both inhibits and promotes performance and citizenship behavior.
See on jom.sagepub.com

29
Nov
13

Theory of Mind and Empathic Explanations of Machiavellianism

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond
Abstract:We study theory of mind (ToM) and empathic underpinnings of Machiavellianism by use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, where account managers are used as participants in 3 studies. Study 1 finds evidence for activation of the medial prefrontal cortex, left and right temporo-parietal junction, and left and right precuneus regions; all five regions are negatively correlated with Machiavellianism, suggesting that Machiavellians are less facile than non-Machiavellians with ToM skills. Study 2 presents evidence for activation of the left and right pars opercularis, left and right insula, and left precuneus regions; the former four regions of the motor neuron system were positively associated, and the latter negatively associated, with Machiavellianism, implying that Machiavellians resonate more readily with the emotions of others than non-Machiavellians. This is the first study to our knowledge to show a negative correlation between perspective taking and emotional sharing in empathic processes in general and Machiavellianism in particular. Study 3 tests implications of managerial control on both performance and organizational citizenship behaviors, as moderated by Machiavellianism in the field. Our study grounds the functioning of Machiavellianism in organizations in basic neuroscience processes, resolves some long-standing ambiguities with self-report investigations, and points to conditions under which Machiavellianism both inhibits and promotes performance and citizenship behavior.
See on jom.sagepub.com

29
Nov
13

Planning for the future

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

I’d like to write about the implications of living longer for retirement planning and the role that behavioral biases play in the difficulty people have in planning for their retirement years. My research interests are in how people think about the future, especially when they are planning for the future, and how thinking about the future is different than thinking about the present. My research supports what the physicist Niels Bohr (and many others) reportedly said, “predictions are difficult, especially about the future”. The first and biggest challenge is paying attention to the future long enough to make a plan. Why is thinking about the (far) future so difficult, especially when it comes to money? You might think it is simply because people are short-sighted and greedy. We know from behavioral research, however, that given a choice between a healthy snack and a sweet treat, people will eat the treat now and plan to have the healthy snack next week1.

However, when next week arrives, they do the same thing—indulging their current self now and promising virtuous choices for the future self. And to some extent, we see the same thing with financial behavior—people run up credit card debt to pay for a new TV or a winter vacation. But while I believe that self-control problems and what behavioral economists call “present-biased preferences2 ” are real and important, I think they are probably a relatively minor cause of the difficulty most of us having in thinking about long-term financial planning. I think it is important that people stop beating themselves up over their weakness of will and lack of self-control and realize that long-term planning is actually an unnatural act that requires outsmarting the brain’s natural focus on the present and near-future.

See on www.bringyourchallenges.com




Time is real? I think not

novembre: 2013
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