Archivio per 7 novembre 2013

07
Nov
13

Steve Ahlquist: Behavioral Economics and Humanist Values

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Humanism has long described itself as a progressive philosophy of life, but exactly what the word “progressive” means seems a matter open to debate. If the term is to be understood in a political or economic sense, then certain narrow assumptions apply, however, if one holds the term in the stricter sense of only pertaining to civil liberties, then the meaning of the term can be widened to the point at which it loses almost any relevant meaning in the world today.

Progressive politics today seems to have coalesced around a kind democratic socialism, that is, simply stated, a maximizing of individual freedoms within the context of a strong social safety net. Under such a system one would expect a full range of liberties as might be found in the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights, and a full range of protections that can be afforded by a strong central government. Universal health care, social security, a fair and just criminal court system, and a mandatory living wage would exist at the high end of such a system today, while basic liberties such as freedom of speech, fair and just elections, freedom of association and freedom of conscience would at a minimum exist at the low end.

See on www.steveahlquist.com

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07
Nov
13

Steve Ahlquist: Behavioral Economics and Humanist Values

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Humanism has long described itself as a progressive philosophy of life, but exactly what the word “progressive” means seems a matter open to debate. If the term is to be understood in a political or economic sense, then certain narrow assumptions apply, however, if one holds the term in the stricter sense of only pertaining to civil liberties, then the meaning of the term can be widened to the point at which it loses almost any relevant meaning in the world today.

Progressive politics today seems to have coalesced around a kind democratic socialism, that is, simply stated, a maximizing of individual freedoms within the context of a strong social safety net. Under such a system one would expect a full range of liberties as might be found in the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights, and a full range of protections that can be afforded by a strong central government. Universal health care, social security, a fair and just criminal court system, and a mandatory living wage would exist at the high end of such a system today, while basic liberties such as freedom of speech, fair and just elections, freedom of association and freedom of conscience would at a minimum exist at the low end.

See on steveahlquist.com

07
Nov
13

The cognitive neuroscience of creativity

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

This article outlines a framework of creativity based on functional neuroanatomy. Recent advances in the field of cognitive neuroscience have identified distinct brain circuits that are involved in specific higher brain functions. To date, these findings have not been applied to research on creativity. It is proposed that there are four basic types of creative insights, each mediated by a distinctive neural circuit.

By definition, creative insights occur in consciousness. Given the view that the working memory buffer of the prefrontal cortex holds the content of consciousness, each of the four distinctive neural loops terminates there. When creativity is the result of deliberate control, as opposed to spontaneous generation, the prefrontal cortex also instigates the creative process. Both processing modes, deliberate and

spontaneous, can guide neural computation in structures that contribute emotional content and in structures that provide cognitive analysis, yielding the four basic types of creativity. Supportive evidence

from psychological, cognitive, and neuroscientific studies is presented and integrated in this article.

The new theoretical framework systematizes the interaction between knowledge and creative thinking, and how the nature of this relationship changes as a function of domain and age. Implications for the arts and sciences are briefly discussed.

See on cognovo.eu

07
Nov
13

The cognitive neuroscience of creativity

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

This article outlines a framework of creativity based on functional neuroanatomy. Recent advances in the field of cognitive neuroscience have identified distinct brain circuits that are involved in specific higher brain functions. To date, these findings have not been applied to research on creativity. It is proposed that there are four basic types of creative insights, each mediated by a distinctive neural circuit.

By definition, creative insights occur in consciousness. Given the view that the working memory buffer of the prefrontal cortex holds the content of consciousness, each of the four distinctive neural loops terminates there. When creativity is the result of deliberate control, as opposed to spontaneous generation, the prefrontal cortex also instigates the creative process. Both processing modes, deliberate and

spontaneous, can guide neural computation in structures that contribute emotional content and in structures that provide cognitive analysis, yielding the four basic types of creativity. Supportive evidence

from psychological, cognitive, and neuroscientific studies is presented and integrated in this article.

The new theoretical framework systematizes the interaction between knowledge and creative thinking, and how the nature of this relationship changes as a function of domain and age. Implications for the arts and sciences are briefly discussed.

See on www.cognovo.eu

07
Nov
13

Second Order Swarm Intelligence

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

In order to solve hard combinatorial optimization problems (e.g. optimally scheduling students and teachers along a week plan on several different classes and classrooms), one way is to computationally mimic how ants forage the vicinity of their habitats searching for food. On a myriad of endless possibilities to find the optimal route (minimizing the travel distance), ants, collectively emerge the solution by using stigmergic signal traces, or pheromones.

 
See on chemoton.wordpress.com

07
Nov
13

Second Order Swarm Intelligence

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

In order to solve hard combinatorial optimization problems (e.g. optimally scheduling students and teachers along a week plan on several different classes and classrooms), one way is to computationally mimic how ants forage the vicinity of their habitats searching for food. On a myriad of endless possibilities to find the optimal route (minimizing the travel distance), ants, collectively emerge the solution by using stigmergic signal traces, or pheromones.

 
See on chemoton.wordpress.com

07
Nov
13

Irrationality in Economic Decisions — Some Historical Considerations

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Drawing from history and psychology, behavioral economics offers a radically different perspective to help us understand how people, organizations and markets really operate in comparison to the traditional economic models. Behavioral economics’ lens on human behavior posit that people are bound by biases they are largely unaware of, thus assuming that their behavior is based on rational economic decision-making processes. Much of the hypothesis testing governing behavioral economics is based on experiments carried out in controlled laboratory conditions. Some traditional economists argue that while the results of these experiments are interesting, they do not invalidate the rational models of traditional economics. Relegating behavioral economics to the fringes of economics, they cite the controlled nature of behavioral experiments carried out by psychologists as the reason why these experiments fail to take into account the most important regulator of perceived rational behavior, the large competitive marketplace.7

Another reason why psychological and social aspects of human behavior do not feature in economic theory is that theoretical economics developed rapidly in the 1950s. In its quest to be recognised as a science, economists simplified their models to make them more scientifically rigorous and mathematically treatable. At the time, psychology was an evolving discipline and was yet to branch into the economic domain of human behavior. Whatever the reasons, the near collapse of the world financial markets at the turn of this decade, and the admission by some of the most powerful players in politics, economics and global finance, that they were clueless about the pending economic disaster and what to do about it, has brought the debate about behavioral economics’ contribution to economic thought into the mainstream.

 

See on medium.com




Time is real? I think not

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