Archivio per 4 febbraio 2014

04
Feb
14

Albert Einstein College of Medicine

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine developed a mouse model in which molecules crucial to making memories (beta-actin mRNA) were given fluorescent “tags” so they could be tracked. This clip shows them traveling within a live brain cell in real time. Video Credit: Credit: Hye Yoon Park, Ph.D.  – See more at: http://www.einstein.yu.edu/#sthash.eXfELHqR.dpuf.

See on einstein.yu.edu

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04
Feb
14

Albert Einstein College of Medicine

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine developed a mouse model in which molecules crucial to making memories (beta-actin mRNA) were given fluorescent “tags” so they could be tracked. This clip shows them traveling within a live brain cell in real time. Video Credit: Credit: Hye Yoon Park, Ph.D.  – See more at: http://www.einstein.yu.edu/#sthash.eXfELHqR.dpuf.

See on www.einstein.yu.edu

04
Feb
14

Negotiating Complex Contracts by Mark Klein, Peyman Faratin, Hiroki Sayama, Yaneer Bar-Yam :: SSRN

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Abstract:      
Work to date on computational models of negotiation has focused almost exclusively on defining contracts consisting of one or a few independent issues and tractable contract spaces. Many real-world contracts, by contrast, are much more complex, consisting of multiple inter-dependent issues and intractably large contract spaces. This paper describes a simulated annealing based approach appropriate for negotiating such complex contracts that achieves near-optimal social welfares for negotiations with binary issue dependencies. 

See on papers.ssrn.com

04
Feb
14

Negotiating Complex Contracts by Mark Klein, Peyman Faratin, Hiroki Sayama, Yaneer Bar-Yam :: SSRN

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Abstract:      
Work to date on computational models of negotiation has focused almost exclusively on defining contracts consisting of one or a few independent issues and tractable contract spaces. Many real-world contracts, by contrast, are much more complex, consisting of multiple inter-dependent issues and intractably large contract spaces. This paper describes a simulated annealing based approach appropriate for negotiating such complex contracts that achieves near-optimal social welfares for negotiations with binary issue dependencies. 

 

See on papers.ssrn.com

04
Feb
14

Oliver Sacks on Humans and Myth-making | Oliver Sacks | Big Think

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

First I would say that the human brain or the human mind is disposed to create stories or narratives. Children love stories, make up stories. Jerome Bruner, a great psychologist, has spoken of two modes of thinking. One is to create narratives, one is to create paradigms or explanations or models.  And of course some of these will come together because then you want to have a story which explains.

We all come into the world and human beings are evolved into a mysterious world and had to wonder where they came from, how the world came from, what are the stars doing.

And in the absence of better explanations, I think, supernatural explanations sort of come to mind. There must have been some great figure who created the universe and who perhaps is keeping an eye on us now.

.

See on bigthink.com

04
Feb
14

Oliver Sacks on Humans and Myth-making | Oliver Sacks | Big Think

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

First I would say that the human brain or the human mind is disposed to create stories or narratives. Children love stories, make up stories. Jerome Bruner, a great psychologist, has spoken of two modes of thinking. One is to create narratives, one is to create paradigms or explanations or models.  And of course some of these will come together because then you want to have a story which explains.

We all come into the world and human beings are evolved into a mysterious world and had to wonder where they came from, how the world came from, what are the stars doing.

And in the absence of better explanations, I think, supernatural explanations sort of come to mind. There must have been some great figure who created the universe and who perhaps is keeping an eye on us now.

.

See on bigthink.com

04
Feb
14

A simple principle that explains everything from the perceived success of speed cameras and alternative medicine to the Sports Illustrated jinx | Neurobonkers | Big Think

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

According to urban legend, sports stars who appear on the cover of Sports Illustrated will subsequently experience bad luck. This seems counterintuitive but time and time again the Sports Illustrated jinx repeats itself. Take another example that at first might seem unrelated: Flight cadets have been noted to improve in performance immediately following punishment and show poorer performance immediately following rewards – a finding that seemingly flies in the face of much of what we know about behavioural psychology. Think about your own life for a moment, have you ever noticed this effect? Why might this be the case?

In both cases, as Nobel prize winning economist Daniel Kahneman explains in Thinking Fast and Slow, the answer is nothing to do with what we might expect – the fact that the sportsmen and women appeared on Sports Illustrated or the way the flight cadets were rewarded or punished. The real explanation is all down to probability – a principle known as regression to the mean. Wherever we can expect random fluctuations, if we take an extreme example such as a sportsmen who is on a winning streak or a flight cadet performing particularly well or badly, we can expect that in the immediate future their performance will return closer to the mean due to chance alone. A classic example of this is in how we interpret the effect of speed cameras which are typically installed following a streak of accidents. Following a streak of accidents we can expect that due to random chance there will be a period of time where no accidents take place, regardless of whether or not a speed camera is installed – but when a speed camera is installed we attribute the subsequent immediate drop in accidents as a result of the speed camera.

See on bigthink.com




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