Archivio per aprile 2014

30
Apr
14

Near Death Experiences: A New Algorithmic Approach to Verifying Consciousness Outside the Brain | Laws | NeuroQuantology

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Near Death Experiences: A New Algorithmic Approach to Verifying Consciousness Outside the Brain Quantum mechanics arose to explain ‘wobbles’ in predicted effects of Newtonian physics, such as the stability of electron orbitals. Similarly, scientifically verified phenomena in the field of neuroscience which contradict known theories of brain function, could give weight and credibility to neuroquantology, stimulating new research and discovery. The existence of consciousness outside the physical brain, often recounted anecdotally in various forms, if verified, could be such a phenomenon. Accounts of ‘Out of Body Experiences’ (OBEs), often incorporating ‘Near Death Experiences’ (NDEs) have accumulated over many years, with believers in the empirical actuality of the OBE/NDE, and sceptics entrenched. After an overview of explanations and theories on both sides, with counter-arguments, we make the case for a new approach, for identifying verifiable cases, if any. This would allow critical appraisal of evidence, according to scientific methodology, though with certain inescapable limitations. Using a specific, much-cited case, we show how distorted accounts of NDEs may be used to support supposedly ‘scientific’ arguments. We propose an algorithm, to discount unsuitable cases, identify verifiable features, and allow further reputable scientific study, and an online cache, of suitable cases. Verifying out-of-brain consciousness would stimulate new technology, for medical science, and even communication between brains – and new science to explain it, conceivably using quantum models, as it’s impossible according to current neuroscience. It would advance arguments about defining death, even survival after death. However slim the chance of verifying OBEs, the potential benefits and advances in scientific and biomedical knowledge make the attempt worthwhile.

See on neuroquantology.com

30
Apr
14

Near Death Experiences: A New Algorithmic Approach to Verifying Consciousness Outside the Brain | Laws | NeuroQuantology

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Near Death Experiences: A New Algorithmic Approach to Verifying Consciousness Outside the Brain Quantum mechanics arose to explain ‘wobbles’ in predicted effects of Newtonian physics, such as the stability of electron orbitals. Similarly, scientifically verified phenomena in the field of neuroscience which contradict known theories of brain function, could give weight and credibility to neuroquantology, stimulating new research and discovery. The existence of consciousness outside the physical brain, often recounted anecdotally in various forms, if verified, could be such a phenomenon. Accounts of ‘Out of Body Experiences’ (OBEs), often incorporating ‘Near Death Experiences’ (NDEs) have accumulated over many years, with believers in the empirical actuality of the OBE/NDE, and sceptics entrenched. After an overview of explanations and theories on both sides, with counter-arguments, we make the case for a new approach, for identifying verifiable cases, if any. This would allow critical appraisal of evidence, according to scientific methodology, though with certain inescapable limitations. Using a specific, much-cited case, we show how distorted accounts of NDEs may be used to support supposedly ‘scientific’ arguments. We propose an algorithm, to discount unsuitable cases, identify verifiable features, and allow further reputable scientific study, and an online cache, of suitable cases. Verifying out-of-brain consciousness would stimulate new technology, for medical science, and even communication between brains – and new science to explain it, conceivably using quantum models, as it’s impossible according to current neuroscience. It would advance arguments about defining death, even survival after death. However slim the chance of verifying OBEs, the potential benefits and advances in scientific and biomedical knowledge make the attempt worthwhile.

See on www.neuroquantology.com

30
Apr
14

“What is fair for you?” Judgments and decisions about fairness and Theory of Mind

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Theory of Mind (ToM) is involved in decision making in strategic games with adults, while its results with children are still controversial, probably because the literature to date has not directly assessed children’s concept of fairness. The goal of this research is to investigate what constitutes fairness across different age groups (children aged seven, eight and nine years) by assessing both their judgements and their decisions concerning the offers made by a social partner and then to relate this to ToM understanding by using second-order false-belief tasks. Results show that, across age groups, the concept of fairness evolves from divisions in one’s advantage towards those of equality; although ToM is not related to the concept of fairness, it plays a role in the strategic behaviour that orients children to accept more equal divisions and to reject hyperfair divisions.

See on ndslab.squarespace.com

30
Apr
14

“What is fair for you?” Judgments and decisions about fairness and Theory of Mind

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Theory of Mind (ToM) is involved in decision making in strategic games with adults, while its results with children are still controversial, probably because the literature to date has not directly assessed children’s concept of fairness. The goal of this research is to investigate what constitutes fairness across different age groups (children aged seven, eight and nine years) by assessing both their judgements and their decisions concerning the offers made by a social partner and then to relate this to ToM understanding by using second-order false-belief tasks. Results show that, across age groups, the concept of fairness evolves from divisions in one’s advantage towards those of equality; although ToM is not related to the concept of fairness, it plays a role in the strategic behaviour that orients children to accept more equal divisions and to reject hyperfair divisions.

See on ndslab.squarespace.com

30
Apr
14

Path dependence in risky choice: Affective and deliberative processes in brain and behavior

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

a b s t r a c t
Decision-makers show an increased risk appetite when they gamble with previously won money, the house money effect, and when they have a chance to make up for a prior loss, the break even effect. To explore the origins of these effects, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to record the brain activities of subjects while they make sequential risky
choices. The behavioral data from our experiment confirm the path dependence of choices, despite the short trial duration and the many task repetitions required for neuroimaging.
The brain data yield evidence that the increased risk appetite after gains and losses is related to an increased activity of affective brain processes and a decreased activity of deliberative brain processes.

See on ndslab.squarespace.com

30
Apr
14

Path dependence in risky choice: Affective and deliberative processes in brain and behavior

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

a b s t r a c t
Decision-makers show an increased risk appetite when they gamble with previously won money, the house money effect, and when they have a chance to make up for a prior loss, the break even effect. To explore the origins of these effects, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to record the brain activities of subjects while they make sequential risky
choices. The behavioral data from our experiment confirm the path dependence of choices, despite the short trial duration and the many task repetitions required for neuroimaging.
The brain data yield evidence that the increased risk appetite after gains and losses is related to an increased activity of affective brain processes and a decreased activity of deliberative brain processes.

See on ndslab.squarespace.com

30
Apr
14

TED: Dan Ariely on Why We Cheat | Business | WIRED

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Dan Ariely is a people hacker. A professor of behavioral economics at Duke University and MIT as well as director of MIT’s Center for Advanced Hindsight, Ariely deconstructs human behavior to find the hidden ways we deceive ourselves about the things we do and to construct better ways of resolving some of life’s issues.

Ariely, who was born in the U.S. and raised in Israel, wrote a book called Predictably Irrational, which showed how people are irrational in calculable and dependable ways. He’s also conducted tests on cheating that produced some interesting results.

In his research, Ariely gave test subjects 20 math problems to solve and told them they’d be paid cash for each correct answer. The subjects were given only five minutes to do the exam, ensuring that no one would complete it. When the time was up, the control subjects were told to count their correct answers and collect their pay.

See on wired.com

30
Apr
14

TED: Dan Ariely on Why We Cheat | Business | WIRED

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Dan Ariely is a people hacker. A professor of behavioral economics at Duke University and MIT as well as director of MIT’s Center for Advanced Hindsight, Ariely deconstructs human behavior to find the hidden ways we deceive ourselves about the things we do and to construct better ways of resolving some of life’s issues.

Ariely, who was born in the U.S. and raised in Israel, wrote a book called Predictably Irrational, which showed how people are irrational in calculable and dependable ways. He’s also conducted tests on cheating that produced some interesting results.

In his research, Ariely gave test subjects 20 math problems to solve and told them they’d be paid cash for each correct answer. The subjects were given only five minutes to do the exam, ensuring that no one would complete it. When the time was up, the control subjects were told to count their correct answers and collect their pay.

See on www.wired.com

30
Apr
14

Swarm Intelligence : From Natural to Artificial Systems

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Social insects–ants, bees, termites, and wasps–can be viewed as powerful problem-solving systems with sophisticated collective intelligence. Composed of simple interacting agents, this intelligence lies in the networks of interactions among individuals and between individuals and the environment. A fascinating subject, social insects are also a powerful metaphor for artificial intelligence, and the problems they solve–finding food, dividing labor among nestmates, building nests, responding to external challenges–have important counterparts in engineering and computer science. This book provides a detailed look at models of social insect behavior and how to apply these models in the design of complex systems. The book shows how these models replace an emphasis on control, preprogramming, and centralization with designs featuring autonomy, emergence, and distributed functioning. These designs are proving immensely flexible and robust, able to adapt quickly to changing environments and to continue functioning even when individual elements fail. In particular, these designs are an exciting approach to the tremendous growth of complexity in software and information. Swarm Intelligence draws on up-to-date research from biology, neuroscience, artificial intelligence, robotics, operations research, and computer graphics, and each chapter is organized around a particular biological example, which is then used to develop an algorithm, a multiagent system, or a group of robots. The book will be an invaluable resource for a broad range of disciplines.

See on books.google.cl

30
Apr
14

Swarm Intelligence : From Natural to Artificial Systems

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Social insects–ants, bees, termites, and wasps–can be viewed as powerful problem-solving systems with sophisticated collective intelligence. Composed of simple interacting agents, this intelligence lies in the networks of interactions among individuals and between individuals and the environment. A fascinating subject, social insects are also a powerful metaphor for artificial intelligence, and the problems they solve–finding food, dividing labor among nestmates, building nests, responding to external challenges–have important counterparts in engineering and computer science. This book provides a detailed look at models of social insect behavior and how to apply these models in the design of complex systems. The book shows how these models replace an emphasis on control, preprogramming, and centralization with designs featuring autonomy, emergence, and distributed functioning. These designs are proving immensely flexible and robust, able to adapt quickly to changing environments and to continue functioning even when individual elements fail. In particular, these designs are an exciting approach to the tremendous growth of complexity in software and information. Swarm Intelligence draws on up-to-date research from biology, neuroscience, artificial intelligence, robotics, operations research, and computer graphics, and each chapter is organized around a particular biological example, which is then used to develop an algorithm, a multiagent system, or a group of robots. The book will be an invaluable resource for a broad range of disciplines.

See on books.google.cl




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