Archivio per 25 giugno 2014

25
Giu
14

Neuroeconomics of Complex Social Behavior – YouTube

Michael L. Platt
Duke Institute for Brain Sciences, Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University

We are the most charitable species on the planet—often giving to others we don’t even know. We are also among the most competitive—misleading, lying, and cheating to further our own ends. How the brain shapes these choices remains poorly understood. I will describe recent work using a new model of social decision making in which pairs of monkeys interact through a computer device while we either monitor or manipulate their brains. We found that monkeys favor choices that reward another monkey, particularly if he is more familiar or subordinate, rather than choosing to reward no one. Oxytocin—a hormone implicated in social bonding—increases both prosocial choices and attention to the other monkey. We also found that prosocial choices selectively activated neurons in the medial frontal cortex, an area implicated in empathy in humans. By contrast, when monkeys played a competitive game against each other, they rapidly developed unpredictable behaviors that served to mislead the other monkey. We found that deceptive tactics selectively activated a specific population of cells in the lateral frontal cortex. Inactivating these neurons impaired deceptive planning. Together, these discoveries define part of a network of brain areas specialized for complex social behavior and cognition.

Source: www.youtube.com

Annunci
25
Giu
14

Neuroeconomics of Complex Social Behavior – YouTube

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Michael L. Platt
Duke Institute for Brain Sciences, Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University

We are the most charitable species on the planet—often giving to others we don’t even know. We are also among the most competitive—misleading, lying, and cheating to further our own ends. How the brain shapes these choices remains poorly understood. I will describe recent work using a new model of social decision making in which pairs of monkeys interact through a computer device while we either monitor or manipulate their brains. We found that monkeys favor choices that reward another monkey, particularly if he is more familiar or subordinate, rather than choosing to reward no one. Oxytocin—a hormone implicated in social bonding—increases both prosocial choices and attention to the other monkey. We also found that prosocial choices selectively activated neurons in the medial frontal cortex, an area implicated in empathy in humans. By contrast, when monkeys played a competitive game against each other, they rapidly developed unpredictable behaviors that served to mislead the other monkey. We found that deceptive tactics selectively activated a specific population of cells in the lateral frontal cortex. Inactivating these neurons impaired deceptive planning. Together, these discoveries define part of a network of brain areas specialized for complex social behavior and cognition.

See on youtube.com

25
Giu
14

The Intuitive Investor: Why Intuition Is Important

There is a growing regard for intuition as many successful investors, including George Soros, attribute their success to it. Here is why intuition is important. 

Over the course of my investment career, I used several unconventional tools to improve the results of the fund I co-managed, but none was more powerful than intuition. In fact, there is a growing regard forintuition as many successful investors, including George Soros, attribute their success to intuition. A recent Wall Street Journal article said of executive decision making, “The potential conclusion is thatpeople who are good at strategy are better at sensing or feeling their way through strategies, rather than relying only on logic and being rational.” Even the author of My Life as a Quant, Emanuel Derman, has a deep-seated research interest in intuition. In this, the first in a regular series on the importance of intuition in investing, I will weigh in on the burgeoning discussion about intuition.

Source: blogs.cfainstitute.org

25
Giu
14

The Intuitive Investor: Why Intuition Is Important

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

There is a growing regard for intuition as many successful investors, including George Soros, attribute their success to it. Here is why intuition is important. 

Over the course of my investment career, I used several unconventional tools to improve the results of the fund I co-managed, but none was more powerful than intuition. In fact, there is a growing regard forintuition as many successful investors, including George Soros, attribute their success to intuition. A recent Wall Street Journal article said of executive decision making, “The potential conclusion is thatpeople who are good at strategy are better at sensing or feeling their way through strategies, rather than relying only on logic and being rational.” Even the author of My Life as a Quant, Emanuel Derman, has a deep-seated research interest in intuition. In this, the first in a regular series on the importance of intuition in investing, I will weigh in on the burgeoning discussion about intuition.

See on blogs.cfainstitute.org

25
Giu
14

Intelligence and the Brain: Recent Advances in Understanding How the Brain Works with Jeff Hawkins – YouTube

By Xiao-Jing Wang, NYU Shanghai Many challenging questions about how the brain makes choices require an integrative approach across different levels of investimets. How the brain creates intelligence is viewed by many as the greatest scientific quest of all time. We are living at the time when rapid progress is being made and a comprehensive theory of brain function is emerging. Jeff Hawkins, an inventor, engineer, neuroscientist, author and entrepreneur, presents the big picture of what we know so far and describes recent progress in a core issue: why neurons are arranged as they are in the neocortex, how this arrangement builds models of the world, and how these models make predictions and generate actions. Series: “UC Berkeley Graduate Council Lectures” ..

Source: www.youtube.com

25
Giu
14

Intelligence and the Brain: Recent Advances in Understanding How the Brain Works with Jeff Hawkins – YouTube

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

By Xiao-Jing Wang, NYU Shanghai Many challenging questions about how the brain makes choices require an integrative approach across different levels of investimets. How the brain creates intelligence is viewed by many as the greatest scientific quest of all time. We are living at the time when rapid progress is being made and a comprehensive theory of brain function is emerging. Jeff Hawkins, an inventor, engineer, neuroscientist, author and entrepreneur, presents the big picture of what we know so far and describes recent progress in a core issue: why neurons are arranged as they are in the neocortex, how this arrangement builds models of the world, and how these models make predictions and generate actions. Series: “UC Berkeley Graduate Council Lectures" ..

See on youtube.com

25
Giu
14

Behavioural Economics and Taxation

Abstract: Most traditional tax policies have been based on classical economic models of tax payers as decision makers.As in many fields where humans make decision, however, more integrated behavioural economic models, that is, models that take into account both psychological and purely economic factors can provide further insights.Therefore, a large literature in the field on the behavioural economics of taxation exists. This report summarizes central parts of this literature, reviewing mainly experimental and observational studies in the academic literature to be informative for policy-makers. It also provides a potential agenda for future research and application of behavioural economic policies with regard to tax compliance.

Source: ec.europa.eu




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