Archivio per 9 settembre 2014

09
Set
14

DARPA explores neuromodulation of organ functions to help the human body heal itself | KurzweilAI

See on Scoop.itGlobal Brain

DARPA ElectRx (credit: DARPA) DARPA’s new Electrical Prescriptions (ElectRx)  (pronounced “electrics”) program aims to develop new high-precision,

See on kurzweilai.net

09
Set
14

Baidu says its massive deep-learning system is nearly complete

See on Scoop.itGlobal Brain

Baidu says its 100-billion-neuron deep learning system will be complete within six months, powering a fast transition away from text as the dominant search input. Thanks to smartphones and its new Baidu Eye technology, the company expects voice and image search to dominate within five years.

Spaceweaver’s insight:

Looks like a very impressive commitment to deep learning and further integration of AI into our daily lives.

See on gigaom.com

09
Set
14

Is Economics a Science?

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

One problem with economics is that it is necessarily focused on policy, rather than discovery of fundamentals. Nobody really cares much about economic data except as a guide to policy: economic phenomena do not have the same intrinsic fascination for us as the internal resonances of the atom or the functioning of the vesicles and other organelles of a living cell. We judge economics by what it can produce. As such, economics is rather more like engineering than physics, more practical than spiritual.

There is no Nobel Prize for engineering, though there should be. True, the chemistry prize this year looks a bit like an engineering prize, because it was given to three researchers – Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt, and Arieh Warshel – “for the development of multiscale models of complex chemical systems” that underlie the computer programs that make nuclear magnetic resonance hardware work. But the Nobel Foundation is forced to look at much more such practical, applied material when it considers the economics prize.

The problem is that once we focus on economic policy, much that is not science comes into play. Politics becomes involved, and political posturing is amply rewarded by public attention. The Nobel Prize is designed to reward those who do not play tricks for attention, and who, in their sincere pursuit of the truth, might otherwise be slighted.

Read more at http://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/robert-j–shilleron-whether-he-is-a-scientist#ytyt9w1S1gt9t8QY.99

See on project-syndicate.org

09
Set
14

Frontiers | Moral judgment reloaded: a moral dilemma validation study | Emotion Science

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability and Intention) and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats) that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people’s moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan and Danish). The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set.

See on journal.frontiersin.org

09
Set
14

Advancing consumer neuroscience

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Abstract In the first decade of consumer neuroscience, strong progress has been made in understanding how neuroscience can inform consumer decision making. Here, we sketch the development of this discipline and compare it to that of the adjacent field of neuroeconomics. We describe three new frontiers for ongoing progress at both theoretical and applied levels. First, the field will broaden its boundaries to include genetics and molecular neuroscience, each of which will provide important new insights into individual differences in decision making. Second, recent advances in computational methods will improve the accuracy and out-of-sample generalizability of predicting decisions from brain activity. Third, sophisticated meta-analyses will help consumer neuroscientists to synthesize the growing body of knowledge, providing evidence for consistency and specificity of brain activations and their reliability as measurements of consumer behavior

See on neuroecon.berkeley.edu

09
Set
14

Frontiers | Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia patients do not succumb to the Allais paradox | Decision Neuroscience

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

The Allais Paradox represents on of the earliest empirical challenges to normative models of decision-making, and suggests that choices in one part of a gamble may depend on the possible outcome in another, independent, part of the gamble—a violation of the so-called “independence axiom”. To account for Allaisian behavior, one well-known class of models propose that individuals’ choices are influenced not only by possible outcomes resulting from one’s choices, but also the anticipation of regret for foregone options. Here we test the regret hypothesis using a population of patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), a clinical population known to present ventromedial prefrontal cortex dysfunctions and associated with impaired regret processing in previous studies of decision-making. Compared to behavior of matched controls and Alzheimer (AD) patients that has no ventromedial prefrontal atrophy, we found a striking diminution of Allaisian behavior among bvFTD patients. These results are consistent with the regret hypothesis and furthermore suggest a crucial role for prefrontal regions in choices that typically stands in contradiction with a basic axiom of rational decision-making.

See on journal.frontiersin.org

09
Set
14

The Problem With Reclining Airplane Seat Design

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

To recline or not to recline? That is the question now being hotly debated among air travelers after three flights were forced to land after passengers on board began fighting about reclining seats.

But are passengers really the problem? The real issue may be that most airline seats are not designed to fully accommodate the human body in its various shapes and sizes.

“We are fighting each other, but the seats are not designed right,” said Kathleen M. Robinette, professor and head of the department of design, housing and merchandising at Oklahoma State University. “The seats don’t fit us.”

Dr. Robinette would know. She is the lead author of a landmark anthropometric survey conducted by the Air Force with a consortium of 35 organizations and published in 2002. It is widely used by seat makers and other designers.

 

See on well.blogs.nytimes.com




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