Archivio per 11 settembre 2014

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Brain structure could predict risky behavior | neuroscientistnews.com

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Some people avoid risks at all costs, while others will put their wealth, health, and safety at risk without a thought. Researchers at Yale School of Medicine have found that the volume of the parietal cortex in the brain could predict where people fall on the risk-taking spectrum.

Led by Ifat Levy, assistant professor in comparative medicine and neurobiology at Yale School of Medicine, the team found that those with larger volume in a particular part of the parietal cortex were willing to take more risks than those with less volume in this part of the brain. The findings are published in the Sept. 10 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience.

Although several cognitive and personality traits are reflected in brain structure, there has been little research linking brain structure to economic preferences. Levy and her colleagues sought to examine this question in their study.

Study participants included young adult men and women from the northeastern United States. Participants made a series of choices between monetary lotteries that varied in their degree of risk, and the research team conducted standard anatomical MRI brain scans. The results were first obtained in a group of 28 participants, and then confirmed in a second, independent, group of 33 participants.

See on neuroscientistnews.com

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NEUROECONOMICS OF DECISION-MAKING IN THE AGING BRAIN: THE EXAMPLE OF LONG-TERM CARE

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

ABSTRACT

Purpose – Long-term care (LTC) services assist people with limitations in the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) as a result of chronic illness or disabilities. We discuss possible behavioral explanations for the under-purchasing of LTC insurance, as well as the current state of knowledge on the neural mechanisms behind these behavioral factors.

Findings/approach – Ideas from behavioral economics are discussed, including risk-seeking over losses, ambiguity-preferring over losses, hyperbolic discounting, and the effect of the aging process on the underlying neural mechanisms supporting these decisions. We further emphasize the role of age, as aging is a highly heterogeneous process. It is associated with changes in both brain tissue as well as cognitive abilities, and both are characterized by large individual differences. Therefore, understanding the neural mechanisms is vital to understanding this heterogeneity and identifying possible methods of interventions.

See on neuroecon.berkeley.edu

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Thinking like a trader selectively reduces individuals’loss aversion

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Research on emotion regulation has focused upon observers’ ability to regulate their emotional reaction to stimuli such as affective pictures, but many other aspects of our affective experience are also potentially amenable to intentional cognitive regulation. In the domain of decision-making, recent work has demonstrated a role for emotions in choice, although such work has generally remained agnostic about the specific role of emotion. Combining psychologically-derived cognitive strategies, physiological measurements of arousal, and an economic model of behavior, this study examined changes in choices (specifically, loss aversion) and physiological correlates of behavior as the result of an intentional cognitive regulation strategy. Participants were on average more aroused per dollar to losses relative to gains, as measured with skin conductance response, and the difference in arousal to losses versus gains correlated with behavioral loss aversion across subjects. These results suggest a specific role for arousal responses in loss aversion. Most importantly, the intentional cognitive regulation strategy, which emphasized ‘‘perspective-taking,’’ uniquely reduced both behavioral loss aversion and arousal to losses relative to gains, largely by influencing arousal to losses. Our results confirm previous research demonstrating loss aversion while providing new evidence characterizing individual differences and arousal correlates and illustrating the effectiveness of intentional regulation strategies in reducing loss aversion both behaviorally and physiologically

See on neuroecon.berkeley.edu

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Should Public Policy Promote Better Habits?

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

In other words, neoclassical economics is all wrong.

O.K., that’s an overstatement. But both concerns about the health effects of urban layouts and attempts to deter certain kinds of consumption are basically about the failings of rationality as a model of human behavior. People should get enough exercise – they will, in general, be happier if they do – but they tend not to get exercise if they live in an environment where it’s easy to drive everywhere and not as easy to walk. People should also limit their caloric intake – again, they’ll be happier if they do – but they have a hard time resisting those giant tubs of popcorn.

I can personally attest to the importance of these environmental effects. These days, I walk around with a pedometer on my wrist – hey, I’m 61, and it’s now or never – and it’s obvious just how much more natural it is to get exercise when I’m in New York than when I’m in Princeton, N.J. Choosing to walk just a couple times rather than take the subway fairly easily gets me to 15,000 steps in the city, while even with a morning run it can be hard to break 10,000 in the suburbs. Also, the nanny-state legacy of former Mayor Michael Bloomberg, with calories displayed on practically everything in New York, does help curb my vices (greasy breakfast sandwiches!).

See on truth-out.org

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The Art of Being Yourself: Caroline McHugh at TEDxMiltonKeynesWomen – YouTube

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

aroline McHugh wrote a lovely book about the art of being yourself. We had a great conversation about how the True Mirror was such a great new tool for both discovering and for further knowing your real self, that she included True Mirror in the book. Its a wonderful book that you will be happy to own and show off on your coffee table and bookshelf
From a the book blurb:

How many times has someone offered you that wonderfully insightful piece of advice to ‘just be yourself’? Like it hadn’t crossed your mind already? 
Here is a wee book with a big idea—that you should be nobody but yourself—offering inspiration and direction for everybody who wants to be more specifically somebody. 
At a time when we’re looking for a more honest approach to everything from food to music to politics, Never Not a Lovely Moon offers not a path to being yourself, but being yourself as the path. 
In her two decades of being a student and teacher of IDOLOGY, Caroline has worked all over the world with thousands of individuals, from celebrated artists to Fortune 500 CEOs to schoolchildren in India, using her unique perspective to shine a light on theirs. 

See on youtube.com

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The End of Psychology? » IAI TV

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

The end of psychology? Perhaps not quite yet, but there is a serious message behind The Onion’s fantasy about the American Psychology Association (APA). Over the past decades, psychology has been increasingly overtaken by neuroscience. Two multi-billion euro/dollar initiatives – one European, one American – were launched in 2012 with the avowed objectives of “solving the brain” and, in the EU’s case, incorporating the solution into novel “neuromorphic” computers.

Hard-line reductionists speak of “molecular and cellular cognition” and dismiss the mind as an epiphenomenal product of neural processes, a “user illusion,” or, as zoologist Thomas Huxley put it a century and a half ago, merely the whistle to the steam train. Most neuroscientists concur; as Francis Crick put it: “You are nothing but a bunch of neurons.” Neurophilosophers, a world away from Descartes famous Cogito ergo sum speak contemptuously of “folk psychology”, to be replaced as neuroscience progresses by an objective, rigorously defined brain language.

 
See on iainews.iai.tv




Time is real? I think not

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