Archivio per 25 settembre 2014

25
Set
14

Do gut bacteria rule our minds?

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

It sounds like science fiction, but it seems that bacteria within us — which outnumber our own cells about 100-fold — may very well be affecting both our cravings and moods to get us to eat what they want, and often are driving us toward obesity.

In an article published this week in the journal BioEssays, researchers from UC San Francisco, Arizona State University and University of New Mexico concluded from a review of the recent scientific literature that microbes influence human eating behavior and dietary choices to favor consumption of the particular nutrients they grow best on, rather than simply passively living off whatever nutrients we choose to send their way.

In an article published this week in the journal BioEssays, researchers from UC San Francisco, Arizona State University and University of New Mexico concluded from a review of the recent scientific literature that microbes influence human eating behavior and dietary choices to favor consumption of the particular nutrients they grow best on, rather than simply passively living off whatever nutrients we choose to send their way.

See on universityofcalifornia.edu

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25
Set
14

ADHD: Brains not recognizing an angry expression | neuroscientistnews.com

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsive behavior in children with ADHD can result in social problems and they tend to be excluded from peer activities. They have been found to have impaired recognition of emotional expression from other faces. The research group of Professor Ryusuke Kakigi of the National Institute for Physiological Sciences, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, in collaboration with Professor Masami K. Yamaguchi and Assistant Professor Hiroko Ichikawa of Chuo University first identified the characteristics of facial expression recognition of children with ADHD by measuring hemodynamic response in the brain and showed the possibility that the neural basis for the recognition of facial expression is different from that of typically developing children. – See more at: http://www.neuroscientistnews.com/research-news/adhd-brains-not-recognizing-angry-expression#sthash.W9ftKlj0.dpuf

See on neuroscientistnews.com

25
Set
14

[1409.3120] Complex Network Approach to Number Theory

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

In this short paper, following the most recent advances in complex network theory, a new approach to number theory with potential applications to other fields is proposed. The model by Garcia-Perez, Serrano and Boguna, introduces an algorithm which allows to create a bipartite graph of integers (with primes and composites) statistically very close to the real one. Since the algorithm is defined {it a priori}, we can have a description of the simulated prime number distribution in terms of a known differential equation, which in general can be treated more easily. The so determined properties of the simulated distribution can give useful hints about the behavior of the real prime number distribution. In principle it could be also possible to demonstrate open questions in number theory, proven the total equivalence of the simulated and real distributions. I show that the model by Garcia-Perez, Serrano and Boguna, though very good to describe the architecture of the relations among composites and primes, can not be useful to catch the most subtle properties of prime numbers. Anyway, the path suggested by such model is very promising, and should drive researchers to look for more refined algorithms to simulate the structure of integer numbers.

See on arxiv.org

25
Set
14

Estimating topological properties of weighted networks from limited information

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

A fundamental problem in studying and modeling economic and financial systems is represented by privacy issues, which put severe limitations on the amount of accessible information. Here we investigate a novel method to reconstruct the structural properties of complex weighted networks using only partial information: the total number of nodes and links, and the values of the strength for all nodes. The latter are used first as fitness to estimate the unknown node degrees through a standard configuration model; then, degrees and strengths are employed to calibrate an enhanced configuration model in order to generate ensembles of networks intended to represent the real system. The method, which is tested on the World Trade Web, while drastically reducing the amount of information needed to infer network properties, turns out to be remarkably effective−thus representing a valuable tool for gaining insights on privacy-protected socioeconomic networks. #Behavioral #bias

See on arxiv.org

25
Set
14

War: Origins and Effects

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

The International System is a self-organized system and shows emergent behavior. During the timeframe (1495 – 1945), a finite-time singularity and four accompanying accelerating log-periodic cycles shaped the dynamics of the International System. The accelerated growth of the connectivity of the regulatory network of the International System, in combination with its anarchistic structure, produce and shape the war dynamics of the system. Accelerated growth of the connectivity of the International system is fed by population growth and the need for social systems to fulfill basic requirements. The finite-time singularity and accompanying log-periodic oscillations were instrumental in the periodic reorganization of the regulatory network of the International System, and contributed to a long-term process of social expansion and integration in Europa. The singularity dynamic produced a series of organizational innovations. At the critical time of the singularity (1939) the connectivity of the system reached a critical threshold, resulting in a critical transition. This critical transition caused a fundamental reorganization of the International System: Europe transformed from an anarchistic system to cooperative security community. This critical transition also marks the actual globalization of the International System. During the life span of cycles, the war dynamics show chaotic characteristics. Various early-warning signals can be identified, and can probably be used in the current International System. These findings have implications for the social sciences and historical research.

See on arxiv.org




Time is real? I think not

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