Archivio per 26 settembre 2014

26
Set
14

Recent advances in understanding neural systems that support inhibitory control

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Highlights•

Right lateral prefrontal cortex plays an important role in inhibitory control.•

Recent advances suggest that rIFG may not just be involved in motoric inhibition.

Rather rIFG may integrate contextual information with potential goals.

Whether inhibitory control uses a central neural system remains unclear.

Alternatively, such systems may vary by domain — motoric, cognitive, emotional.

 Although it is agreed that the right lateral prefrontal cortex plays a prominent role in inhibitory control, the exact psychological processes it implements remain unclear, as do the precise neural substrates of such control. Recently debated is the issue of whether the right inferior cortex is specifically involved in inhibition of action, or whether this region monitors the environmental context to provide information as to which goals are attainable under current conditions. Another issue of debate is whether there is a common neural substrate for inhibitory control or whether different neural systems are involved in inhibitory control in different domains — motoric, cognitive, and emotional. The present review examines the current state of thought on these two important issues.

See on sciencedirect.com

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26
Set
14

Memory integration: neural mechanisms and implications for behavior

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Everyday behaviors require a high degree of flexibility, in which prior knowledge is applied to inform behavior in new situations. Such flexibility is thought to be supported in part by memory integration, a process whereby related memories become interconnected in the brain through recruitment of overlapping neuronal populations. Recent advances in cognitive and behavioral neuroscience highlight the importance of a hippocampal–medial prefrontal circuit in memory integration. Emerging evidence suggests that abstracted representations in medial prefrontal cortex guide reactivation of related memories during new encoding events, thus promoting hippocampal integration of related experiences. Moreover, recent work indicates that integrated memories are called upon during novel situations to facilitate a host of behaviors, from spatial navigation to imagination.

See on sciencedirect.com

26
Set
14

From Tribulations to Appreciation Experiencing Adversity in the Pas Predicts Greater Savoring in the Present

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Alessandro Cerboni’s insight:

Abstract
Can experiencing adversity enhance people’s appreciation for life’s small pleasures? To examine this question, we asked nearly
15,000 adults to complete a vignette-based measure of savoring. In addition, we presented participants with a checklist of adverse events (e.g., divorce, death of a loved one) and asked them to indicate whether they had experienced any of these events and, if so, to specify whether they felt they had emotionally dealt with the negative event or were still struggling with it. Although people who were currently struggling with adversity reported a diminished proclivity for savoring positive events, individuals who had dealt with more adversity in the past reported an elevated capacity for savoring. Thus, the worst experiences in life may come with an eventual upside, by promoting the ability to appreciate life’s small pleasures

See on dunn.psych.ubc.ca

26
Set
14

The Biology Of Altruism: Good Deeds May Be Rooted In The Brain

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Angela Stimpson donated a kidney to a complete stranger. Why did she do it? Researchers found that the brains of Stimpson and other altruists are sensitive to fear and distress in a stranger’s face. Most of the tests didn’t find any differences between the brains of the altruistic donors and the people who had not been donors. Except, Marsh says, for a significant difference in a part of the brain called the amygdala, an almond-shaped cluster of nerves that is important in processing emotion. 

See on npr.org

26
Set
14

5 U.S. Banks Each Have More Than 40 Trillion Dollars In Exposure To Derivatives | Zero Hedge

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

When is the U.S. banking system going to crash? We can sum it up in three words. Watch the derivatives. It used to be only four, but now there are five “too big to fail” banks in the United States that each have more than 40 trillion dollars in exposure to derivatives. 

The “too big to fail” banks run up enormous profits from their derivatives trading.  According to the New York Times, U.S. banks “have nearly $280 trillion of derivatives on their books” even though the financial crisis of 2008 demonstrated how dangerous they could be…

American banks have nearly $280 trillion of derivatives on their books, and they earn some of their biggest profits from trading in them. But the 2008 crisis revealed how flaws in the market had allowed for dangerous buildups of risk at large Wall Street firms and worsened the run on the banking system.

See on zerohedge.com

26
Set
14

Silver Tumbles To 4 Year Lows As Massive Sell Order Hits At Market Open | Zero Hedge

See on Scoop.itGold and What Moves it.

Because nothing says efficient market and fiduciary duty like waiting for the US equity market to open to send a huge sell order through the silver futures market… Running the entire stack (and this all resting stops), however, silver has immediately bounced back… Gold was relatively unaffected. Copper had also got plugged early on and is now ripping higher.

See on zerohedge.com




Time is real? I think not

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