Archivio per 9 gennaio 2015

09
Gen
15

Amygdala subnuclei connectivity in response to violence reveals unique influences of individual differences in psychopathic traits in a non-forensic sample

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Abstract: Atypical amygdala function and connectivity have reliably been associated with psychopathy.However, the amygdala is not a unitary structure. To examine how psychopathic traits in a nonforensic sample are linked to amygdala response to violence, this study used probabilistic tractography to classify amygdala subnuclei based on anatomical projections to and from amygdala subnuclei in a group of 43 male participants. The segmentation identified the basolateral complex (BLA; lateral, basal,and accessory basal subnuclei) and the central subnucleus (CE), which were used as seeds in a functional connectivity analysis to identify differences in neuronal coupling specific to observed violence. While a full amygdala seed showed significant connectivity only to right middle occipital gyrus, subnuclei seeds revealed unique connectivity patterns. BLA showed enhanced coupling with anterior cingulate and prefrontal regions, while CE showed increased connectivity with the brainstem, but reduced connectivity with superior parietal and precentral gyrus. Further, psychopathic personality factors were related to specific patterns of connectivity. Fearless Dominance scores on the psychopathic personality inventory predicted increased coupling between the BLA seed and sensory integration cortices,and increased connectivity between the CE seed and posterior insula. Conversely, Self-Centered Impulsivity scores were negatively correlated with coupling between BLA and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and Coldheartedness scores predicted increased functional connectivity between BLA and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. Taken together, these findings demonstrate how subnuclei segmentations reveal important functional connectivity differences that are otherwise inaccessible. Such an approach yields a better understanding of amygdala dysfunction in psychopathy.

See on academia.edu

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09
Gen
15

Complexity of Military Conflict: Multiscale Complex Systems Analysis of Littoral Warfare

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond
In 1998 the Chief of Naval Operations Strategic Studies Group (SSG) XVII articulated a post Cold War need to focus on asymmetric warfare, specifically including information warfare, weapons of mass destruction and terrorism. Their central challenge was to develop the theme “Naval Campaign: Littorial Air/Land Challenges for the 21st Century.” In response, SSG XVII-XX have developed the concepts of Network Centric Warfare, Sea Power, Sea Strike, Naval Power Forward, and FORCEnet.

A recognition of the relevance of complex systems concepts to the challenges of 21st Century warfare led to the invitation of Yaneer Bar-Yam, president of the New England Complex Systems Institute, to lecture periodically at the SSG beginning in January 2000 and specifically to address the topic of littoral warfare. The following paper by Professor Bar-Yam discusses the relevance of Multiscale Complex Systems Analysis to a characterization of the differences between conventional and complex warfare challenges, with particular application to littoral warfare.

The conclusions suggest that littoral warfare cannot be readily incorporated into Navy operations without considering the specific organizational and technological requirements needed to perform effectively in this high complexity environment. The significance of organizational structure to meeting complex challenges is already apparent from the difference between the organization and training of the Navy and Marines. Beyond the organizational structure, there is a broad relevance of complexity to the selection of appropriate technology and of identifying military objectives in the context of littoral warfare.

This paper is presented as an aid both to conceiving of littoral warfare concepts, and more generally as an introduction to the use of the conceptual tools provided by multiscale analysis. Experience with complex warfare in Vietnam and Afghanistan illustrates the importance of these concepts. A more formal and quantitative application of multiscale methods, not undertaken here, is possible to extend its usefulness. This paper is part of a larger effort to apply multiscale complex systems analysis to military conflict.

See on necsi.edu




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