Archivio per 11 gennaio 2015

11
Gen
15

Applying behavioral economics to real-world challenges: Kelly Peters at TEDxUtrecht

See on Scoop.itTowards to the Dark Side: 10, 9, 8, 7….

BE BRIGHT: “Overcome your fear of making a mistake. Take a bold stance, an active role in big life situations. Calculate the risk, and take control!” In the …

See on youtube.com

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11
Gen
15

How to Make Yourself Go to the Gym

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

The principle of pay-now, work-out-later is great for gyms, but less so for their customers. Economists look at other ways to encourage exercise. 

If you’re like a lot of Americans, one of your New Year’s resolutions is to work out more. If you’re like a lot of Americans, you’ll join a gym this January as part of that plan. And if you’re like a lot of Americans, you won’t go very much.

Our overoptimism about how much we will work out has been the subject of academic research. Nearly a decade ago, the economists Stefano DellaVigna and Ulrike Malmendier published “Paying Not to Go to the Gym,” a paper in which they found that members at three Boston gyms went an average of 4.3 times a month. With monthly membership fees of just over $70, that meant an average of $17 per visit — well above the $10 charge to work out as a nonmember.

So why didn’t they just pay per visit? Because they overestimated how often they would go. The authors surveyed gym members who, on average, said they would work out about 9.5 times a month, more than twice the actual attendance observed in the study. People remained in denial about their gym attendance even after they’d stopped going entirely: On average, nonattending gym members did not cancel until 2.3 months after their last visit, paying for $187 worth of completely unused gym access.

See on nytimes.com

11
Gen
15

Social networks in primates: smart and tolerant species have more efficient networks : Scientific Reports : Nature Publishing Group

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Network optimality has been described in genes, proteins and human communicative networks. In the latter, optimality leads to the efficient transmission of information with a minimum number of connections. Whilst studies show that differences in centrality exist in animal networks with central individuals having higher fitness, network efficiency has never been studied in animal groups. Here we studied 78 groups of primates (24 species). We found that group size and neocortex ratio were correlated with network efficiency. Centralisation (whether several individuals are central in the group) and modularity (how a group is clustered) had opposing effects on network efficiency, showing that tolerant species have more efficient networks. Such network properties affecting individual fitness could be shaped by natural selection. Our results are in accordance with the social brain and cultural intelligence hypotheses, which suggest that the importance of network efficiency and information flow through social learning relates to cognitive abilities.

See on nature.com

11
Gen
15

Remapping the damaged brain

See on Scoop.itSocial Neuroscience Advances

Scientists at the RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies, along with researchers from the AIST Human Technology Research Institute in Japan, have identified a time-dependent interplay between two brain regions that contributes to the recovery…

See on psypost.org

11
Gen
15

The Strange Inevitability of Evolution

See on Scoop.itPapers

Natural selection supplies an incredibly powerful way of pruning variation into effective solutions to the challenges of the environment. But it can’t explain where all that variation came from. As the biologist Hugo de Vries wrote in 1905, “natural selection may explain the survival of the fittest, but it cannot explain the arrival of the fittest.” Over the past several years, Wagner and a handful of others have been starting to understand the origins of evolutionary innovation. Thanks to their findings so far, we can now see not only how Darwinian evolution works but why it works: what makes it possible.

(…)

These ideas suggest that evolvability and openness to innovation are features not just of life but of information itself. That is a view long championed by Schuster’s sometime collaborator, Nobel laureate chemist Manfred Eigen, who insists that Darwinian evolution is not merely the organizing principle of biology but a “law of physics,” an inevitable result of how information is organized in complex systems. And if that’s right, it would seem that the appearance of life was not a fantastic fluke but almost a mathematical inevitability.

See on nautil.us

11
Gen
15

Brain Network Adaptability across Task States

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

AbstractActivity in the human brain moves between diverse functional states to meet the demands of our dynamic environment, but fundamental principles guiding these transitions remain poorly understood. Here, we capitalize on recent advances in network science to analyze patterns of functional interactions between brain regions. We use dynamic network representations to probe the landscape of brain reconfigurations that accompany task performance both within and between four cognitive states: a task-free resting state, an attention-demanding state, and two memory-demanding states. Using the formalism of hypergraphs, we identify the presence of groups of functional interactions that fluctuate coherently in strength over time both within (task-specific) and across (task-general) brain states. In contrast to prior emphases on the complexity of many dyadic (region-to-region) relationships, these results demonstrate that brain adaptability can be described by common processes that drive the dynamic integration of cognitive systems. Moreover, our results establish the hypergraph as an effective measure for understanding functional brain dynamics, which may also prove useful in examining cross-task, cross-age, and cross-cohort functional change.
See on ploscompbiol.org

11
Gen
15

come congelare il rischi di spese eccessive con la carta di credito 




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