Archivio per 18 gennaio 2015

18
Gen
15

Narrative and deliberative instauration: The use of narrative as process and artefact in the social construction of institutions

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond
Abstract: Patient Safety is a global institution in the field largely assumed to have emerged following the publication of To Err Is Human by the Institute of Medicine in 1999. In this paper we demonstrate that Patient Safety has been constructed as an institution separately in the practice of anaesthesia since 1954 and in hospitalised care since 1964. The publication of To Err was, in fact, only one of a number of later field configuring events. We use Bruner’s (1991) theory of narrative to frame the institution building process which we term deliberative instauration in recognition of the historic literature on the subject. We further link the process of institution building to Vygotsky’s theory of social mediation and the use of artefacts in relation to the object of intended action. We conclude that a narrative can be understood as both an artefact and a process used in the social construction of institutions by professional psychological collectives (in this case physicians).
See on hal.grenoble-em.com

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18
Gen
15

Accounting for Context: Separating Monetary and Social Incentives

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond
Abstract: This paper proposes a simple framework to model social preferences in a game theoretic framework which explicitly separates economic incentives from social (context) effects. It is argued that such a perspective makes it easier to analyse contextual effects. Moreover, the framework is used to exemplify both theoretically and empirically how contextual variables such as social norms can worsen a social dilemma or possibly make it disappear. The empirical results of a randomised controlled classroom experiment show that women are more responsive to such contextual effects and that social agreements can also worsen economic inefficiencies
See on ifw-members.ifw-kiel.de

18
Gen
15

Improving voluntary public good provision by a non-governmental, endogenous matching mechanism

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond
Abstract: Social norms can help to foster cooperation and to overcome the free-rider problem in private provision of public goods. This paper focuses on the enforcement of social norms by a selfintroduced punishment and reward scheme. We analyse if subjects achieve to implement a normenforcement mechanism at their own expense by applying the theory of non-governmental normenforcement by Buchholz et al. (2014) in a laboratory experiment. Based on their theory without central authority and endogenously determined enforcement mechanism, we implement a twostage public good game: At the first stage subjects determine the strength of penalty/reward on their own and in the second stage they decide on their contributions to the public good. We find that the mechanism by Buchholz et al. (2014) leads to a higher public good contribution than without the use of any mechanism. Only in a few cases groups end up with a zero enforcement mechanism. This result indicates that subjects are apparently willing to contribute funds for implementing an enforcement mechanism. Moreover, higher enforcement parameters lead to higher public good contributions in the second stage, although too high enforcement parameters lead to unreachable theoretical optima. 
See on econstor.eu

18
Gen
15

How Brain Scans Could Help Predict a Person’s Future Success

See on Scoop.itSocial Neuroscience Advances

One day, we may be able to predict people’s future behaviour and performance based on a brain scan.

See on motherboard.vice.com

18
Gen
15

Exploring brain activity in neuroeconomics

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond
ABSTRACT: Neuroeconomics uses various methodologies to study the neural underpinning of economic decision-making. The goal of the present article is to briefly introduce the most frequently used methods. The main functioning, properties and features, including advantages and limits, of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), Electroencephalography (EEG), Magnetoencephalography (MEG), and Transcranial Stimulation (TMS and tDCS) will be discussed.
See on researchgate.net




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