Archivio per 23 gennaio 2015

23
Gen
15

Nudging Healthy Lifestyles – Informing Regulatory Governance with Behavioural Research

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Abstract: At a time when policy makers want to change the behaviour of citizens to tackle a broad range of social problems, such as climate change, excessive drinking, obesity and crime, a promising new policy approach has appeared that seems capable of escaping the liberal reservations typically associated with all forms of regulatory action. The approach, which stems from the increasingly ubiquitous findings of behavioural research, is generally captured under the evocative concept of ‘nudge.’ Inspired by ‘libertarian paternalism,’ it suggests that the goal of public policies should be to steer citizens towards making positive decisions as individuals and for society while preserving individual choice. As governments are taking considerable interest in the use of ‘nudging,’ this collection of essays provides a pioneering analysis of this innovative policy approach as it is currently experimented in the United Kingdom and the United States. In particular, it aims at critically examining the application of nudging approaches to the current efforts of regulating lifestyle choices, such as tobacco use, excessive use of alcohol, unhealthy diets and lack of physical exercise. In his opening essay, Nudging Healthy Lifestyles, Adam Burgess provides a critical assessment of the introduction of behavioural, nudging approaches to correct lifestyle behaviours in the UK. His thought-provoking analysis triggered a lively debate that has been framed along the subsequent essays signed by On Amir and Orly Lobel, Evan Selinger and Kyle Powys White, Alberto Alemanno and Luc Bovens. Each of these essays critically reflects upon the effectiveness as well as legitimacy of ‘nudging’ approaches
See on papers.ssrn.com

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23
Gen
15

Nudging Energy Efficiency Behavior: The Role of Information Labels

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Abstract: We use choice experiments and randomized information treatments to study the effectiveness of alternative energy efficiency labels in guiding households’ energy efficiency decisions. We disentangle the relative importance of different types of information and distinguish it from intertemporal behavior. We find that insufficient information can lead to considerable undervaluation of energy efficiency. Simple information on the monetary value of energy savings was the most important element guiding cost-efficient energy efficiency investments, with information on physical energy use and carbon dioxide emissions having additional but lesser importance. The degree to which the current US EnergyGuide label guided cost-efficient decisions depends on the discount rate. Using elicited individual discount rates, the current EnergyGuide label came very close to guiding cost-efficient decisions. Using a uniform 5% discount rate, the current label led to one-third undervaluation of energy efficiency. Our results reinforce the centrality of discounting in understanding individual behavior and guiding policy. 
See on jstor.org

23
Gen
15

Journal of the European Economic Association – Volume 11 Themed Issue: Social Norms: Theory and Evidence from Laboratory and Field – June 2013 – Wiley Online Library

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

See on onlinelibrary.wiley.com

23
Gen
15

What Is Compliance?

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Have you ever done something simply because someone asked you to? In psychology, this is known as compliance. Learn more about the psychology behind compliance, including some of the techniques people use to get people to comply with their wishes.

What Is Compliance?

In psychology, compliance refers to changing one’s behavior due to the request or direction of another person. It is going along with the group or changing a behavior to fit in with the group, while still disagreeing with the group. Unlike obedience, in which the other individual is in a position of authority, compliance does not rely upon being in a position of power or authority over others.

“Compliance refers to a change in behavior that is requested by another person or group; the individual acted in some way because others asked him or her to do so (but it was possible to refuse or decline.)”
(Breckler, Olson, & Wiggins, 2006)“Situations calling for compliance take many forms. These include a friend’s plea for help, sheepishly prefaced by the question "Can you do me a favor?” They also include the pop-up ads on the Internet designed to lure you into a commercial site and the salesperson’s pitch for business prefaced by the dangerous words “Have I got a deal for you!” Sometimes the request is up front and direct; what you see is what you get. At other times, it is part of a subtle and more elaborate manipulation.“
(Kassin, Fein, & Markus, 2011)
See on psychology.about.com

23
Gen
15

The race may be close but my horse is going to win: Wish fulfillment in the 1980 presidential election – Springer

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Abstract

Using data from the 1980 U.S. presidential election, we investigate the extent to which voter expectations about candidate electoral success and margin of victory are subject to systematic biases. In particular, we examine the extent to which candidate supporters overestimate their choice’s likelihood of success. After finding a rather dramatic bias in the direction of “wishful thinking,” we review alternative explanations of this phenomenon, including a model based on nonrandom contact networks and one based on preference-related differences in expectations about exogenous variables that could affect the election outcome.

See on link.springer.com

23
Gen
15

The Asch Experiments: Why Do We Feel the Need to Conform?

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Do you think of yourself as a conformist or a non-conformist? If you are like most people, you probably believe that you are non-conformist enough to stand up to a group when you know you are right, but conformist enough to blend in with the rest of your peers.

Imagine yourself in this situation: You’ve signed up to participate in a psychology experiment in which you are asked to complete a vision test. Seated in a room with the other participants, you are shown a line segment and then asked to choose the matching line from a group three segments of different lengths. The experimenter asks each participant individually to select the matching line segment. On some occasions everyone in the group chooses the correct line, but occasionally, the other participants unanimously declare that a different line is actually the correct match.

See on psychology.about.com

23
Gen
15

Risk Perception and Affect

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond
Abstract

Humans perceive and act on risk in two fundamental ways. Risk as feelings refers to individuals’ instinctive and intuitive reactions to danger. Risk as analysis brings logic, reason, and scientific deliberation to bear on risk management. Reliance on risk as feelings is described as “the affect heuristic.” This article traces the development of this heuristic and discusses some of the important ways that it impacts how people perceive and evaluate risk.

See on cdp.sagepub.com




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