Archivio per 28 gennaio 2015

28
Gen
15

Choice Architecture by Richard H. Thaler, Cass R. Sunstein, John P. Balz :: SSRN

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Abstract:      
Decision makers do not make choices in a vacuum. They make them in an environment where many features, noticed and unnoticed, can influence their decisions. The person who creates that environment is, in our terminology, a choice architect. In this paper we analyze some of the tools that are available to choice architects. Our goal is to show how choice architecture can be used to help nudge people to make better choices (as judged by themselves) without forcing certain outcomes upon anyone, a philosophy we call libertarian paternalism. The tools we highlight are: defaults, expecting error, understanding mappings, giving feedback, structuring complex choices, and creating incentives.

See on papers.ssrn.com

Annunci
28
Gen
15

Put your model where your mouth is: a choice prediction competition – Decision Science News

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

A competition among models that capture classical choice anomalies (including Allais, St. Petersburg, and Ellsberg paradoxes, and loss aversion) .

See on decisionsciencenews.com

28
Gen
15

Sound representation in higher language areas during language generation

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond
Abstract

How language is encoded by neural activity in the higher-level language areas of humans is still largely unknown. We investigated whether the electrophysiological activity of Broca’s area correlates with the sound of the utterances produced. During speech perception, the electric cortical activity of the auditory areas correlates with the sound envelope of the utterances. In our experiment, we compared the electrocorticogram recorded during awake neurosurgical operations in Broca’s area and in the dominant temporal lobe with the sound envelope of single words versus sentences read aloud or mentally by the patients. Our results indicate that the electrocorticogram correlates with the sound envelope of the utterances, starting before any sound is produced and even in the absence of speech, when the patient is reading mentally. No correlations were found when the electrocorticogram was recorded in the superior parietal gyrus, an area not directly involved in language generation, or in Broca’s area when the participants were executing a repetitive motor task, which did not include any linguistic content, with their dominant hand. The distribution of suprathreshold correlations across frequencies of cortical activities varied whether the sound envelope derived from words or sentences. Our results suggest the activity of language areas is organized by sound when language is generated before any utterance is produced or heard.

See on pnas.org




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