Archivio per 4 febbraio 2015

04
Feb
15

NeuroLogica Blog » Gravity Waves and Science Self-Correction

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

In 2011 scientists tentatively reported that they may have detected neutrinos traveling faster than the speed of light in apparent contradiction to the theory of relativity. By early 2012 the technical error that led to the apparent discovery was revealed.

Also in 2012 scientists reported that, using the Large Hadron Collider, they probably found the Higgs boson, the particle responsible for mass. However they were still not completely sure so they kept testing, and then last year they announcedthat indeed they did identify the Higgs as predicted by the standard model of particle physics.

In March of 2014, in what was definitely the biggest science news story of the year scientists reported detected gravity waves from the Big Bang, confirming the theory called the “inflationary universe.” The discovery was hailed as a “smoking gun.” Space.com at the time wrote:

If it holds up, the landmark discovery — which also confirms the existence of hypothesized ripples in space-time known as gravitational waves — would give researchers a much better understanding of the Big Bang and its immediate aftermath.

In those four little words, “if it holds up,” lies the essence of science. This is just a sample of recent big science news stories that reveal the process of science – skeptical questioning of all claims and testing those claims against objective evidence.

See on theness.com

04
Feb
15

Behavioural Economics in Action | Middlesex University London

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Applying behavioural economics to real-world problems is becoming increasingly widespread. The main findings from behavioural economics are that individuals deviate from optimal behaviour in a consistent and regular manner. Furthermore, emotions play an important role in decision making in many scenarios. As a consequence, policy-makers are beginning to appreciate the relevance of applying tools and techniques from behavioural economics in understanding the behaviour of individuals.

Over the past decade, techniques in behavioural economics have been applied by a large number of both private and public sector organisations. These include the Bank of England, Coca-Cola, the Financial Conduct Authority, Google, HMRC, Hyundai, HSBC, Oxfam, VISA and the NHS, while concepts from behavioural economics are widely used in areas such as marketing, organ donor framing, incentives to save, incentives to spend etc. There does not seem to be an aspect of life in which applications from behavioural economics are not relevant.

See on mdx.ac.uk

04
Feb
15

The end of privacy

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

At birth, your data trail began. You were given a name, your height and weight were recorded, and probably a few pictures were taken. A few years later, you were enrolled in day care, you received your first birthday party invitation, and you were recorded in a census. Today, you have a Social Security or national ID number, bank accounts and credit cards, and a smart phone that always knows where you are. Perhaps you post family pictures on Facebook; tweet about politics; and reveal your changing interests, worries, and desires in thousands of Google searches. Sometimes you share data intentionally, with friends, strangers, companies, and governments. But vast amounts of information about you are collected with only perfunctory consent—or none at all. Soon, your entire genome may be sequenced and shared by researchers around the world along with your medical records, flying cameras may hover over your neighborhood, and sophisticated software may recognize your face as you enter a store or an airport.

 
See on sciencemag.org

04
Feb
15

Participatory Democracy

See on Scoop.itreal utopias

Democracy is a form of government in which all eligible citizens have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives. Democracy allows people to participate equally—either directly or throug…

See on f4dc.org

04
Feb
15

Philosophy’s Lost Body and Soul

See on Scoop.itBrain Tricks: Belief, Bias, and Blindspots

Philosophy’s denial of different racial experiences and identities has compromised its capacities for both knowledge and self-knowledge.

See on opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com

04
Feb
15

Skin-applied foil could give people a sense of “magnetoception”

See on Scoop.itBrain Tricks: Belief, Bias, and Blindspots

How would you like to be able to sense magnetic fields? It could come in handy, given that some animals navigate and maintain their spatial orientation by doing so. Well, we’ve now come one step closer to humans having that ability, too.

See on gizmag.com

04
Feb
15

Researchers find different pathways responsible for sugar addiction and healthy eating

See on Scoop.itSocial Neuroscience Advances

Many who have tried to kick the sweet white crystals will tell you that “sugar addiction” is very real, and there are indeed neurological underpinnings that back them up.

See on gizmag.com

04
Feb
15

Zukunftsangst! Fear of (and Hope for) the Future and Its Impact on Life Satisfaction

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond
Abstract: The thoughts that an individual has about the future contribute substantially to their life satisfaction in a positive or negative direction. This is a result found via five different methods, some of which control for personality and disposition and the potential endogeneity of thoughts and life satisfaction. The reduction in life satisfaction experienced by individuals who report being pessimistic is greater than that for well-known objective statuses like unemployment. Including individuals’ thoughts about the future substantially increases the explanatory power of standard life satisfaction models. Life satisfaction is made up of objective and subjective factors and methods exist to account for their potential endogeneity to enhance our understanding of well-being. This investigation is an example of such an analysis combining a subjective factor, thoughts about the future (treated as endogenous), with more standard objective factors to aid understanding regarding well-being. 
See on diw.de

04
Feb
15

Think Twice Before Running! Bank Runs and Cognitive Abilities

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond
Abstract: We assess the impact of cognitive abilities on withdrawal decisions in a bank-run game. In our setup, depositors choose sequentially between withdrawing or keeping their funds deposited in a common bank. They may observe previous decisions depending on the information structure. Theoretically, the last depositor in the sequence of decisions has a dominant strategy and should always keep the funds deposited, regardless of what she observes (if anything). Recognizing the dominant strategy, however, is not always straightforward. If there exists strategic uncertainty (e.g., the last depositor has no information about predecessors’ decisions) the identification of the dominant strategy requires harder thinking than when there is not strategic uncertainty (e.g., the last depositor is informed about all previous decisions). We find that cognitive abilities, as measured by the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT), predict withdrawals in the presence of strategic uncertainty (participants with higher abilities tend to identify the dominant strategy more easily) but the CRT does not predict behavior when there is no strategic uncertainty.
See on econ.core.hu

04
Feb
15

Cognitive Ability and the Effect of Strategic Uncertainty

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond
Abstract: How is one’s cognitive ability related to the way one responds to strategic uncertainty? We address this question by conducting a set of experiments in simple 2 x 2 dominance solvable coordination games. Our experiments involve two main treatments: one in which two human subjects interact, and another in which one human subject interacts with a computer program whose behavior is known. By making the behavior of the computer perfectly predictable, the latter treatment eliminates strategic uncertainty. We find that subjects with higher cognitive abilities are more sensitive to strategic uncertainty than those with lower cognitive abilities. 
See on amse-aixmarseille.fr




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