Archivio per 17 marzo 2015

17
Mar
15

An interview with Carol Tavris » American Scientist

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Why do people persist in believing things that have been proved to be untrue? Social psychologist Carol Tavris, author of Anger and The Mismeasure of Woman, joins fellow social psychologist Elliot Aronson to answer this question inMistakes Were Made (But Not by Me): How We Justify Foolish Beliefs, Bad Decisions, and Hurtful Acts (Harcourt, 2007). The authors use cognitive dissonance theory to analyze issues and disputes in the worlds of politics, medical science, psychiatry, the criminal justice system and personal relationships. The theory can’t explain everything, Tavris says, but it can shed light on a surprising number of issues. American Scientist assistant book review editor Anna Lena Phillips interviewed Tavris by telephone and e-mail in August and September 2007. 

How did you become interested in the subject of cognitive dissonance, and how did you and Elliot Aronson determine the course you would take in writing the book?

Well, we have been friends and colleagues for many years. We were sitting around one afternoon talking about George W. Bush and the fact that commentators from right, left and center were all shouting at him to admit that he was wrong about weapons of mass destruction and wrong about everybody dancing in the streets to greet us, and how come he didn’t just say so. Andy Rooney, in a commentary for 60 Minutes, actually wrote him a mock-speech and begged him to deliver it to the country: “I told you Saddam Hussein tried to buy the makings of nuclear bombs from Africa. That was a mistake and I wish I hadn’t said that. I get bad information sometimes just like you do.”

 
See on americanscientist.org

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17
Mar
15

Why Spock is Not Rational | Facing the Intelligence Explosion

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Hollywood rationality: Gerd Gigerenzer and Mr. Spock.

Star Trek’s Mr. Spock is not the exemplar of logic and rationality you might think him to be. Instead, he is a “straw man” of rationality used to show (incorrectly) that human emotion and irrationality are better than logic.

See on intelligenceexplosion.com

17
Mar
15

Taking uncertainty seriously: simplicity versus complexity in financial regulation

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

The authors would like to thank Mervyn King for instigating this research collaboration. We are grateful to Ryan Banerjee, Bob Chirinko, Renzo Corrias, Jas Ellis, Andy Haldane, Simon Hall, Ramesh Kapadia, Vasileios Madouros, Hitoshi Mio, Marco Raberto, Tarik Roukny, Vicky Saporta, Jean Whitmore and seminar participants at the Bank of England, the London School of Economics, the Deutsche Bundesbank/SAFE conference on ‘Supervising banks in complex financial systems’ (Frankfurt, 21–22 October 2013) and the ESRC conference on ‘Diversity in macroeconomics’ (Colchester, 24–25 February 2014) for helpful conversations and comments. We would also like to thank George Avil, Timothy Richards, Gowsikan Shugumaran, George Slade and Charlie Woolnough for excellent research assistance.

See on bankofengland.co.uk

17
Mar
15

Gigerenzer versus nudge

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Since I first came across it, I have been a fan of Gerd Gigerenzer’s work. But I have always been slightly perplexed by the effort he expends framing his work in opposition to behavioural science and “nudges”. Most behavioural science aficionados who are aware of Gigerenzer’s work are fans of it, and you can appreciate behavioural science and Gigerenzer without suffering from two conflicting ideas in your mind. In a recent LSE lecture about his new book Risk Savvy: How to Make Good Decisions(which sits unread in my reading pile), Gigerenzer again has a few swipes at Daniel Kahneman and friends. The blurb for the podcast gives a taste. A set of coercive government interventions are listed, none of which are nudges, and it is suggested that we need risk savvy citizens who won’t be scared into surrendering their freedom. Slotted between these is the suggestion that some people see a need for “nudging”.Gigerenzer does provide a different angle to the behavioural science agenda. His work has provided strong evidence for the accuracy of heuristics and shown that many of our so-called irrational decisions make sense from the perspective of the environment where they were designed (evolved). But his work doesn’t undermine the fact that many decisions are made outside of the environment where they originated – those fast, frugal and well-shaped heuristics have not stopped us getting fat, spending huge amounts on unused gym memberships and failing to save for retirement. Gigerenzer’s work provides depth to the behavioural analysis, rather than undermining it, and points to a richer set of potential solutions.
See on jasoncollins.org

17
Mar
15

Co-evolutionary Dynamics of Collectiv Action with Signaling for a Quorum

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Abstract Collective signaling for a quorum is found in a wide range of organisms that face collective action problems whose successful solution requires the participation of some quorum of the individuals present. These range from humans, to social insects, to bacteria. The mechanisms involved, the quorum required, and the size of the group may vary. Here we address the general question of the evolution of collective signaling at a high level of abstraction. We investigate the evolutionary dynamics of a population engaging in a signaling N-person game theoretic model. Parameter settings allow for loners and cheaters, and for costly or costless signals. We find a rich dynamics, showing how natural selection, operating on a population of individuals endowed with the simplest strategies, is able to evolve a costly signaling system that allows individuals to respond appropriately to different states of Nature. Signaling robustly promotes cooperative collective action, in particular when coordinated action is most needed and difficult to achieve. Two different signaling systems may emerge depending on Nature’s most prevalent states.

See on ploscompbiol.org

17
Mar
15

If Greece Embraces Uncertainty, Innovation Will Follow

See on Scoop.itBlack swans, risks and crisis

Countries that score high on uncertainty avoidance score low on innovation (as measured in the innovation union scoreboard of the European Commission) and high on bureaucracy (as measured on the easiness to do business ranking of the World Bank).

See on hbr.org

17
Mar
15

Confirming Einstein, scientists find ‘spacetime foam’ not slowing down photons from faraway gamma-ray burst (Update)

See on Scoop.itBrain Tricks: Belief, Bias, and Blindspots

One hundred years after Albert Einstein formulated the general theory of relativity, an international team has proposed another experimental proof. In a paper published today in Nature Physics, researchers from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, the Open University of Israel, Sapienza University of Rome, and University of Montpellier in France, describe a proof for one of the theory’s basic assumptions: the idea that all light particles, or photons, propagate at exactly the same speed.

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2015-03-einstein-scientists-spacetime-foam.html#jCp

See on phys.org




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