Archivio per 22 marzo 2015

22
Mar
15

Common and private signals in public goods games with a point of no return

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond
Abstract: We provide experimental evidence on behavior in a public goods game featuring a so-called point of no return, meaning that if the group’s total contribution falls below this point all payoffs are reduced. Participants receive either common or private signals about the point of no return, and experience either high or low reductions in payoffs if insufficient contributions are made. Our data reveal that, as expected, contributions are higher if the cost of not reaching the threshold is high than if it is low. High signal values discourage contributions and endanger the likelihood of success when signals are common, but not when signals are private. In addition, successful coordination of contributions is less frequent in a control treatment featuring a standard provision point mechanism than in the experimental treatment where the payoff reduction factor is high, although the theoretical predictions of the two games are similar.
See on dse.univr.it

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22
Mar
15

Cognitive (Ir)reflection: New Experimental Evidence

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond
Abstract: We study whether cognitive ability explains choices in a wide variety of behavioral tasks, including riskand social preferences, by collecting evidence from almost 1,200 subjects across eight experimentalprojects. Since Frederick (2005)’s Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) has been administered to allsubjects, our dataset is one of the largest in the literature. We divide the subjects pool into three groupsdepending on their CRT performance. Reflective subjects are those answering at least two of the threeCRT questions correctly. Impulsive ones are those who are unable to suppress the instinctive impulseto follow the intuitive although incorrect answer in at least two 2 questions, and the remaining subjectsform a residual group. We find that females score significantly worse than males in the CRT, and intheir wrong answers impulsive ones are observed more frequently. The 2D-4D ratio, which is higherfor females, is correlated negatively with subject’s CRT score. In addition, we find that differencesbetween CRT groups in risk aversion depend on the elicitation method used. Finally, impulsive subjectshave higher social preferences, while reflective subjects are more likely to satisfy basic consistencyconditions in lottery choices. 
See on ivie.es

22
Mar
15

Can we neglect the multi-layer structure of functional networks?

See on Scoop.itPapers

Functional networks, i.e. networks representing dynamic relationships between the components of a complex system, have been instrumental for our understanding of, among others, the human brain. Due to limited data availability, the multi-layer nature of numerous functional networks has hitherto been neglected, and nodes are endowed with a single type of links even when multiple relationships coexist at different physical levels. A relevant problem is the assessment of the benefits yielded by studying a multi-layer functional network, against the simplicity guaranteed by the reconstruction and use of the corresponding single layer projection. Here, I tackle this issue by using as a test case, the functional network representing the dynamics of delay propagation through European airports. Neglecting the multi-layer structure of a functional network has dramatic consequences on our understanding of the underlying system, a fact to be taken into account when a projection is the only available information.

Can we neglect the multi-layer structure of functional networks?
Massimiliano Zanin

http://arxiv.org/abs/1503.04302

See on arxiv.org

22
Mar
15

Handshakes Will Never Be The Same Once You Know This – PsyBlog

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Could this study provide the real reason that we tend to shake hands when greeting another person? People shake hands partly to smell each other’s odour, a new study suggests. 

Handshakes are actually socially acceptable ways for people to communicate using smells.

The new study found that people spend more than twice as long sniffing their hands after a handshake.

Hand-sniffing is covered by bringing the hand up to touch the face — for example, by pretending to scratch.

See on spring.org.uk




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