Archivio per 21 aprile 2015

21
Apr
15

Computational Neuropsychology, Studying Emergence | SciTech Connect

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Warren Tryon, author of Cognitive Neuroscience and Psychotherapy, dives into computational neuropsychology, discussing emergence and synaptic reorganization.

It is not enough to call for the study of emergence as I have done in my appeal for a paradigm shift in my book,Cognitive Neuroscience and Psychotherapy: Network Principles for a Unified Theory and in some of my previous blogs. One must also provide tools and some direction for using them to get the ball rolling.

Every parallel-distributed processing connectionist neural network (PDP-CNN) model that I have encountered has focused on the properties of the fully trained “adult” model rather than the process by which these properties emerged. This is because the authors of these simulations have presented their models as demonstration proofs that artificial neural networks are capable of performing certain functions. I agree that this is a necessary first step. It would be premature to study the emergent process unless, or until, one first demonstrated that the network in question is capable of generating the desirable psychological properties. But now that so many psychological and behavioral phenomena have been effectively simulated using PDP-CNN models, it is time to ask how these properties emerge. This line of inquiry is needed to generate full scientific explanations of these psychological and behavioral phenomena.

 
See on scitechconnect.elsevier.com

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21
Apr
15

Destructive Behavior in a Fragile Public Good Game

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond
Abstract: Socially destructive behavior in a public good environment – like damaging public goods – is an underexposed phenomenon in economics. In an experiment we investigate whether such behavior can be influenced by the very nature of an environment. To that purpose we use a Fragile Public Good (FPG) game which puts the opportunity for destructive behavior (taking) on a level playing field with constructive behavior (contributing). We find substantial evidence of destructive decisions, sometimes leading to sour relationships characterized by persistent hurtful behavior. While positive framing induces fewer destructive decisions, shifting the selfish Nash towards minimal taking doubles its share to more than 20%. Female subjects are found to be more inclined to use destructive decisions. Finally, subjects’ social value orientation turns out to be partly predictive of (at least initial) destructive choices.

Downloads: (external link)
ftp://ftp.gate.cnrs.fr/RePEc/2014/1429.pdf 

See on ftp

21
Apr
15

How Does Aging Affect Financial Decision Making? | Center for Retirement Research

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Abstract: The brief’s key findings are: *With the shift from traditional pensions to 401(k) plans, the welfare of retirees depends increasingly on their ability to make sound financial decisions. *Using a dataset that follows a group of older individuals in the Chicago area, the analysis examines how aging affects financial decision making. *Participants who suffer cognitive decline experience a reduction in their financial literacy but no change in their confidence in managing their money. *Perhaps not surprisingly then, while they are more likely to get help with financial decisions, more than half retain primary responsibility for managing their money. 
See on crr.bc.edu

21
Apr
15

Cognitive Bubble

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond
Abstract: Smith et al. (1988) reported large bubbles and crashes in experimental asset markets, a result that has been replicated by a large literature. Here we test whether the occurrence of bubbles depends on the experimental subjects’ cognitive sophistication. In a two-part experiment, we rst run a battery of tests to assess the subjects’ cognitive sophistication and classify them into low or high levels of cognitive sophistication. We then invite them separately to two asset market experiments populated only by subjects with either low or high cognitive sophistication. We observe classic bubble- crash patterns in the sessions populated by subjects with low levels of cognitive sophistication. Yet, no bubbles or crashes are observed with our sophisticated subjects. This result lends strong support to the view that the usual bubbles and crashes in experimental asset markets are caused by subjects’ confusion and, therefore, raises some doubts about the external validity of this type of experiments.Downloads: (external link)
http://sfb649.wiwi.hu-berlin.de/papers/pdf/SFB649DP2015-006.pdf  ;
See on sfb649.wiwi.hu-berlin.de

21
Apr
15

The Dark Side of Competition for Status

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond
Abstract: Unethical behavior within organizations is not rare. We investigate experimentally the role of status-seeking behavior in sabotage and cheating activities aiming at improving one’s performance ranking in a flat-wage environment. We find that average effort is higher when individuals are informed about their relative performance. However, ranking feedback also favors disreputable behavior. Some individuals do not hesitate to incur a cost to improve their rank by sabotaging others’ work or by increasing artificially their own performance. Introducing sabotage opportunities has a strong detrimental effect on performance. Therefore, ranking incentives should be used with care. Inducing group identity discourages sabotage among peers but increases in-group rivalry.

ftp://ftp.gate.cnrs.fr/RePEc/2014/1431.pdf

See on ftp




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