Archivio per 22 maggio 2015

22
Mag
15

Religion, Redistribution and Political Participation

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Abstract: Since Marx and Weber, social scientists have attempted to understand the impact or lack thereof of religion on two core domains of political life: whether religion influences attitudes about wealth accumulation, inequality and redistribution; and whether religion dampens or inspires political participation. However, the effect of religious ideas on these domains is difficult to identify, at the very least because citizens often select into religious associations whose messages they find appealing. We shed light on this issue through an experiment in Nairobi, Kenya. Focusing on the effects of two important contemporary Christian messages, we find evidence that exposure to religious messages can reduce egalitarianism in complex distribution decisions, compared to exposure to secular messages. We also find that exposure to self-affirmation messages—both religious and secular—can be politically empowering and motivate activism. We discuss implications of these findings for political mobilization and policy preferences in Sub-Saharan Africa, as well as for the study of religion and politics more generally.

 

See on busaracenter.org

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22
Mag
15

Imperfect Cognitions: Believing against the Evidence

See on Scoop.itBrain Tricks: Belief, Bias, and Blindspots

This post is by Miriam McCormick, Associate Professor of Philosophy at the University of Richmond. Miriam presents her new book, Believing Against the Evidence: Agency and the Ethics of Belief (Routledge, 2015).

When I first had a student tell me that she doesn’t believe in evolution I was at a loss of how to respond. To me, that sounded like someone telling me that she didn’t believe in gravity. It seemed both irrational and wrong. Experiences like this are common; we think that one’s actual belief can deviate from how one ought to believe. The dominant view among contemporary philosophers is that any belief formed against the evidence is impermissible. On such a view, which I call “evidentialism,” it is easy to diagnosis what is wrong with my student’s belief. I use the term “pragmatism” to refer to the view that some non-evidentially based beliefs are permissible. A central aim of this book is to defend pragmatism. One challenge to the pragmatist view I defend is to show how we can distinguish pernicious non-evidentially based beliefs from those that are permissible.

See on imperfectcognitions.blogspot.com

22
Mag
15

The Neuroscience Of Why Organizational Change Fails

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Did you know that 75% of organizational change initiatives fail? Our brains are hard-wired to resist change. Learn how you to help employees overcome this.  

Neuroscience is one of my favorite topics, and recently it’s one of the things I spend most of my free time learning about.

More and more, leaders will need to understand the neuroscience and psychology of motivation if they want to have high performing teams. Employee engagement, while mostly common sense, is something that employers still seem to get wrong.

The reason for why they get it wrong is because of how delicate humans are. Everyone is different, and there is no standard way of dealing with everyone. Some people are introverts, some are extroverts, some are ambiverts. There are people that work best in the morning, some work best at night, some like to work from home, some can’t work from home.

These are all small examples of why we need to understand human behavior as much as possible if we want to be great leaders. 

See on officevibe.com

22
Mag
15

The Neuroscience of Making a Decision

See on Scoop.itMindfull Decision Making

Various brain regions work together during the decision-making process.

See on psychologytoday.com

22
Mag
15

Autopoiesis with or without cognition: defining life at its edge

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

This paper examines two questions related to autopoiesis as a theory for minimal life: (i) the relation between autopoiesis and cognition; and (ii) the question as to whether autopoiesis is the necessary and sufficient condition for life. First, we consider the concept of cognition in the spirit of Maturana and Varela: in contradistinction to the epresentationalistic point of view, cognition is construed as interaction between and mutual definition of a living unit and its environment. The most direct form of cognition for a cell is thus metabolism itself, which necessarily implies exchange with the environment and therefore a simultaneous coming to being for the organism and for the environment. A second level of cognition is recognized in the adaptation of the living unit to new foreign molecules, by way of a change in its metabolic pattern. We draw here an analogy with the ideas developed by Piaget, who recognizes in cognition the two distinct steps of assimilation and accommodation. While  assimilation is the equivalent of uptake and exchange of usual metabolites, accommodation  corresponds to biological adaptation, which in turn is the basis for evolution. By comparing a micro-organism with a vesicle that uptakes a precursor for its own self-reproduction, we arrive at the conclusion that (a) the very lowest level of cognition is the condition for life, and (b) the lowest level of cognition does not reduce to the lowest level of autopoiesis. As a consequence, autopoiesis alone is only a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for life. The broader consequences of this analysis of cognition for minimal living systems are considered

See on academia.edu




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