Archivio per 7 giugno 2015

07
Giu
15

Exposure to ideologically diverse news and opinion on Facebook

See on Scoop.itPapers

Exposure to news, opinion, and civic information increasingly occurs through social media. How do these online networks influence exposure to perspectives that cut across ideological lines? Using deidentified data, we examined how 10.1 million U.S. Facebook users interact with socially shared news. We directly measured ideological homophily in friend networks and examined the extent to which heterogeneous friends could potentially expose individuals to cross-cutting content. We then quantified the extent to which individuals encounter comparatively more or less diverse content while interacting via Facebook’s algorithmically ranked News Feed and further studied users’ choices to click through to ideologically discordant content. Compared with algorithmic ranking, individuals’ choices played a stronger role in limiting exposure to cross-cutting content.

Exposure to ideologically diverse news and opinion on Facebook
Eytan Bakshy, Solomon Messing, Lada A. Adamic

Science 5 June 2015:
Vol. 348 no. 6239 pp. 1130-1132
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa1160

See on sciencemag.org

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07
Giu
15

Everyday music listening The importance of individual and situational factors fo musical emotions and stress reduction

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Music listening primarily evokes positive emotions in listeners. Research has shown that positive emotions may be fundamental for improving both psychological and physical aspects of well-being. Besides from the music itself it is essential to consider individual and situational factors when studying emotional experiences to music. Everyone does not respond in the same way to a piece of music and one individual may respond differently to a piece of music at different times. The main aim with the four papers in this thesis was to explore the effects of everyday music listening on emotions, stress and health. By using the Day Reconstruction Method (DRM), a new approach was taken to study the prevalence of musical emotions in everyday life. In the DRM the previous day is divided into episodes, in terms of activity, experienced emotions, and time of day. The results from study I showed that music occurred in 30 % of the episodes and that positive emotions were more often and more intensively experienced in musical episodes than in non-musical episodes. Music was also related to lower stress levels and higher health scores. The results from study II showed that if music occurred in the episode after a particularly stressful episode, the stress level was lower in both that episode and in the next one compared to if music did not occur. A mediation analysis suggested that the positive emotions induced by the music were mediating the effect of music on stress. The results did also show that liking of the music affected the level of stress. In study III, an experiment group who listened to their selfchosen music on mp3-players when arriving home from work every day for 30 minutes for two weeks’ time was compared to a control group who relaxed without music and with a baseline week when the experiment group relaxed without music. The results showed that although no significant differences were found between the groups, the experiment group showed an increase in intensity of positive emotions and decrease in perceived stress level and cortisol levels over time. No such changes were found within the control group. In study IV, data from study I and III was reanalysed with the purpose of exploring the associations between personality and emotional responses to music. The results showed that the associations between personality and intensity of positive emotions, perceived stress, and use of emotion regulation strategies differed in the two datasets and these inconsistencies indicate that personality is not the main contributor to emotional responses to music. Overall, the results from this thesis indicate that everyday music listening is an easy and effective way of improving well-being and health by its ability to evoke positive emotions and thereby reduce stress. But not just any music will do since the responses to music are influenced by individual and situational factors.

See on gupea.ub.gu.se

07
Giu
15

Sleep: When Brain Cells Shrink & Neuro Trash Is Flushed Away – Facts So Romantic – Nautilus

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

For humans, sleep is an absolute requirement for survival, almost on par with food and water. When we don’t get it, we not only feel terrible, but our cognitive abilities go downhill, and in extreme cases sleeplessness can lead to seizures and contribute to death. And while we share with many other animals this intense commitment to spending much of our lives unconscious, we don’t really know why we do it. A paper published in Science last monthsuggests that the answer may lie in part with a recently discovered plumbing system that drains waste from the brain. Scientists essentially found that the brain likes to wait till sleep comes before taking out the garbage.

The study follows up on the discovery last year by the same team, based at University of Rochester, that the brain’s waste is removed by a network of channels that run alongside blood vessels. The channels work like the lymphatic system that operates in the rest of the body, collecting and draining what isn’t needed, but they are made of brain cells called glia, instead of the membrane cells that form lymphatic vessels. The channels were effectively invisible to biologists until the development of methods to watch a living brain under the microscope—mouse brains, in these experiments. The discovery of these channels suggested that diseases like Alzheimer’s, in which waste products build up in the brain, might be linked to problems with drainage.

See on nautil.us

07
Giu
15

Got good ideas for crowdsourcing? Attend the IARPA Proposers’ Day conference – Decision Science News

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

The Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) will host a Proposers’ Day Conference for the Crowdsourcing Evidence, Argumentation, Thinking and Evaluation (CREATE) Program on June 30, 2015, in anticipation of the release of a new solicitation in support of the Program. The Conference will be held from 9:00 AM to 4:00 PM EDT in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. The purpose of the Conference will be to provide introductory information on CREATE and the research problems that the Program aims to address, to respond to questions from potential proposers, and to provide a forum for potential proposers to present their capabilities and identify potential team partners. This announcement serves as a pre-solicitation notice and is issued solely for information and planning purposes. The Proposers’ Day Conference does not constitute a formal solicitation for proposals or proposal abstracts. Conference attendance is voluntary and is not required to propose to future solicitations (if any) associated with this Program. IARPA will not provide reimbursement for any costs incurred to participate in this Proposers’ Day.

 

See on decisionsciencenews.com

07
Giu
15

The start of the rebellion?

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

THORSTEIN VEBLEN, an economist who dabbled in sociology, reckoned that the best-off members of a community established the standards that everyone else followed. Less-well-to-do individuals, he reckoned, tried to emulate the well-off and signal their worth through things like “conspicuous consumption” or “conspicuous leisure”.

In Veblen’s day, leisure was a badge of honour. But as we have argued in the past, these days work is rather modish. Hanging around at home is not seen as a sign of success, as it was for Veblen, but a sign of uselessness. Devising whizzy computer code, or solving complex financial problems, now has social status. Such work is also paid really well. All this means that over time, working hard has become cool. The share of college-educated American men regularly working more than 50 hours a week rose from 24% in 1979 to 28% in 2006, but fell for high-school dropouts. Highly educated people take less leisure time than they did fifty years ago.

All this suggests that as people at the top do better and better, those at the bottom will want to work harder too, in order to emulate them. One study indeed found a “Veblen effect”, which showed that as income inequality rose, working hours for the less-well-to-do rose too.

But a new paper, from two economists at Monash Business School, suggests that the tide may be turning. Using relatively recent data on workers in Australia’s six states and two territories, it finds the opposite. As income inequality rose, it finds, Australians decided to work fewer hours. A 1% rise in the Gini coefficient, a measure of economic inequality, ends up resulting in a 0.2% decline in working hours.

See on economist.com

07
Giu
15

David Kreps: Choice, Dynamic Choice, and Behavioral Economics – YouTube

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Economist David Kreps argues that traditional economic models of “rational decision making” fail to capture the complexity of how real people make important choices.

David Kreps joined the faculty of the Graduate School of Business in 1975, after completing a PhD in Operations Research in the Stanford School of Engineering. He has been a full professor since 1980, and today is the Adams Distinguished Professor of Management, with a courtesy appointment in the Department of Economics. From 2000 to 2009, he served as Senior Associate Dean.

See on youtube.com

07
Giu
15

How porn can hinder your financial decision-making – The Investor

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Regulators around the world are worried about new innovations at the intersection of psychology and financial services. But they need to relax. Behavioural science and neuroeconomics can be used for good provided we keep up with the findings.

Like any new technology, it is easy to let caution worry us more than opportunity. From nuclear technology to genetically modified foods, we can focus on the potential harms, rather than the benefits. Behavioural economics has developed theories about why people make bad financial decisions. Neuroeconomics studies brain anatomy and chemistry to understand how economic decisions are made. Both fields are providing powerful insights that can be used for good or for ill.

 
See on investor.moneyweb.co.za




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