Archivio per 9 giugno 2015

09
Giu
15

The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Book. Michael Tomasello argues that the roots of the human capacity for symbol-based culture, and the kind of psychological development that takes place within it, are based in a cluster of uniquely human cognitive capacities that emerge early in human ontogeny. These include capacities for sharing attention with other persons; for understanding that others have intentions of their own; and for imitating, not just what someone else does, but what someone else has intended to do. In his discussions of language, symbolic representation, and cognitive development, Tomasello describes with authority and ingenuity the “ratchet effect” of these capacities working over evolutionary and historical time to create the kind of cultural artifacts and settings within which each new generation of children develops. He also proposes a novel hypothesis, based on processes of social cognition and cultural evolution, about what makes the cognitive representations of humans different from those of other primates. Ambitious and elegant, this book builds a bridge between evolutionary theory and cultural psychology. Michael Tomasello is one of the very few people to have done systematic research on the cognitive capacities of both nonhuman primates and human children. “The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition” identifies what the differences are, and suggests where they might have come from. Lucid, erudite, and passionate, “The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition” will be essential reading for developmental psychology, animal behavior, and cultural psychology.
See on gfbertini.wordpress.com

09
Giu
15

20Q: Noise, Aging and the Brain: How Experience and Training can Nina Kraus

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

An overview of research investigating hearing in noise and brain training using the cABR.

See on audiologyonline.com

09
Giu
15

Come Superare i Pregiudizi Nascosti e Inconsci

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

I pregiudizi e i preconcetti seppelliti nell’inconscio sono sorprendentemente forti e influenzano le nostre decisioni, intaccano i nostri sentimenti e di conseguenza le nostre azioni. A volte non riusciamo a riconoscere il loro potere su di noi, diventando ancora più pericolosi. Per poter superare i preconcetti prima di tutto è importante capirli, e questo articolo contiene alcune indicazioni per riuscire nell’intento.

See on it.wikihow.com

09
Giu
15

Raising Awareness of Unconscious Assumptions and Their Influence on Evaluation of Candidates » Faculty Development | Boston University

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Although we all like to think that we are objective scholars who judge people based entirely on merit and on the quality of their work and the nature of their achievements, copious research shows that every one of us brings with us a lifetime of experience and cultural history that shapes our evaluations of others.

Studies show that people who have strong egalitarian values and believe that they are not biased may nevertheless unconsciously or inadvertently behave in discriminatory ways (Dovidio 2001). A first step toward ensuring fairness in the search and screen process is to recognize that unconscious biases, attitudes, and other influences not related to the qualifications, contributions, behaviors, and personalities of candidates can influence our evaluations, even if we are committed to egalitarian principles.

The results from controlled research studies in which people were asked to make judgments about human subjects demonstrate the potentially prejudicial nature of our many implicit or unconscious assumptions. Examples range from physical and social expectations or assumptions to those that have a clear connection to hiring, even for faculty positions.

It is important to note that in most of these studies, the gender of the evaluator was not significant, indicating that both men and women share and apply the same assumptions about gender. Recognizing biases and other influences not related to the quality of candidates can help reduce their impact on your search and review of candidates. Spending sufficient time on evaluation (15–20 minutes per application) can also reduce the influence of assumptions.

See on bu.edu

09
Giu
15

Richard Thaler “Misbehaving: The Making of Behavioral Economics” | Talks at Google – YouTube

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Richard Thaler, in conversation with Hal Varian, Google’s Chief Economist Richard Thaler, co-author of Nudge, will discuss his new book, Misbehaving: The Mak…

See on youtube.com

09
Giu
15

Unconscious Bias

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Exploring Unconscious Bias by Howard Ross, Founder & Chief Learning Officer, Cook Ross, Inc. Consider this: Less than 15% of American men are over six foot tall, yet almost 60% of corporate CEOs are over six foot tall. Less than 4% of American men are over six foot, two inches tall, yet more than 36% of corporate CEOs are over six foot, two inches tall.1 Why does this happen? Clearly corporate boards of directors do not, when conducting a CEO search, send out a message to “get us a tall guy,” and yet the numbers speak for themselves. In fact, when corrected for age and gender, an inch of height is worth approximately $789 per year in salary!2 Similar patterns are true for Generals and Admirals in the Military, and even for Presidents of the United States. The last elected President whose height was below average was William McKinley in 1896, and he was “ridiculed in the press as ‘a little boy.’” 

See on cookross.com

09
Giu
15

How (Un)ethical Are You?

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Good managers often make unethical decisions—and don’t even know it. Bias That Emerges from Unconscious Beliefs

Most fair-minded people strive to judge others according to their merits, but our research shows how often people instead judge according to unconscious stereotypes and attitudes, or “implicit prejudice.” What makes implicit prejudice so common and persistent is that it is rooted in the fundamental mechanics of thought. Early on, we learn to associate things that commonly go together and expect them to inevitably coexist: thunder and rain, for instance, or gray hair and old age. This skill—to perceive and learn from associations—often serves us well.

But, of course, our associations only reflect approximations of the truth; they are rarely applicable to every encounter. Rain doesn’t always accompany thunder, and the young can also go gray. Nonetheless, because we automatically make such associations to help us organize our world, we grow to trust them, and they can blind us to those instances in which the associations are not accurate—when they don’t align with our expectations.

See on hbr.org




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