Archivio per giugno 2015



27
Giu
15

When did same-sex marriage laws become effective by state? – Decision Science News

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

We thought we’d look when various states allowed same-sex couples to marry (if they did at all) before today.

In light of the good news today that the Supreme Court ruled that same-sex couples have the right to marry in the United States, we thought we’d look at when same-sex marriage laws became effective by state (if they did at all) before today.

Noting that same sex marriage is a dividing issue between the left and right in the US, we thought we’d compare the date of when same-sex marriage laws become effective in each state with each state’s Republican (two-party) vote share in 2012. Results are above.

Note that California’s same-sex marriage law was effective in 2008, then it was overturned, and then made effective again in 2013. We went with the earlier date because you’ve got to chose something.

The next question is “what about the states that were added by the Supreme Court decision today”? We made a second plot, below, in which we put today’s date for those states in the “effective date” column. The result is pretty much the same.

 
See on decisionsciencenews.com

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24
Giu
15

The evolution of lossy compression

See on Scoop.itPapers

In complex environments, there are costs to both ignorance and perception. An organism needs to track fitness-relevant information about its world, but the more information it tracks, the more resources it must devote to memory and processing. Rate-distortion theory shows that, when errors are allowed, remarkably efficient internal representations can be found by biologically-plausible hill-climbing mechanisms. We identify two regimes: a high-fidelity regime where perceptual costs scale logarithmically with environmental complexity, and a low-fidelity regime where perceptual costs are, remarkably, independent of the environment. When environmental complexity is rising, Darwinian evolution should drive organisms to the threshold between the high- and low-fidelity regimes. Organisms that code efficiently will find themselves able to make, just barely, the most subtle distinctions in their environment.

The evolution of lossy compression
Sarah E. Marzen, Simon DeDeo

http://arxiv.org/abs/1506.06138

See on arxiv.org

24
Giu
15

Scarcity: Why Having Too Little Means So Much: Sendhil Mullainathan, Eldar Shafir

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

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Scarcity: Why Having Too Little Means So Much

~ Eldar Shafir (author) More about this product


List Price: $28.00
Price: $19.50
You Save: $8.50 (30%)

A surprising and intriguing examination of how scarcity–and our flawed responses to it–shapes our lives, our society, and our culture

Why do successful people get things done at the last minute? Why does poverty persist? Why do organizations get stuck firefighting? Why do the lonely find it hard to make friends? These questions seem unconnected, yet Sendhil Mullainathan and Eldar Shafir show that they are all examples of a mind-set produced by scarcity.

Drawing on cutting-edge research from behavioral science and economics, Mullainathan and Shafir show that scarcity creates a similar psychology for everyone struggling to manage with less than they need. Busy people fail to manage their time efficiently for the same reasons the poor and those maxed out on credit cards fail to manage their money. The dynamics of scarcity reveal why dieters find it hard to resist temptation, why students and busy executives mismanage their time, and why sugarcane farmers are smarter after harvest than before. Once we start thinking in terms of scarcity and the strategies it imposes, the problems of modern life come into sharper focus.

Mullainathan and Shafir discuss how scarcity affects our daily lives, recounting anecdotes of their own foibles and making surprising connections that bring this research alive. Their book provides a new way of understanding why the poor stay poor and the busy stay busy, and it reveals not only how scarcity leads us astray but also how individuals and organizations can better manage scarcity for greater satisfaction and success.

See on amazon.com

24
Giu
15

The Behavioral Foundations of Public Policy: Eldar Shafir: 9780691137568: Amazon.com: Books

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

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The Behavioral Foundations of Public Policy

Product by Brand: Princeton University Press ~ More about this product


List Price: $55.00
Price: $45.28
You Save: $9.72 (18%)

In recent years, remarkable progress has been made in behavioral research on a wide variety of topics, from behavioral finance, labor contracts, philanthropy, and the analysis of savings and poverty, to eyewitness identification and sentencing decisions, racism, sexism, health behaviors, and voting. Research findings have often been strikingly counterintuitive, with serious implications for public policymaking. In this book, leading experts in psychology, decision research, policy analysis, economics, political science, law, medicine, and philosophy explore major trends, principles, and general insights about human behavior in policy-relevant settings. Their work provides a deeper understanding of the many drivers–cognitive, social, perceptual, motivational, and emotional–that guide behaviors in everyday settings. They give depth and insight into the methods of behavioral research, and highlight how this knowledge might influence the implementation of public policy for the improvement of society.

This collection examines the policy relevance of behavioral science to our social and political lives, to issues ranging from health, environment, and nutrition, to dispute resolution, implicit racism, and false convictions. The book illuminates the relationship between behavioral findings and economic analyses, and calls attention to what policymakers might learn from this vast body of groundbreaking work.

Wide-ranging investigation into people’s motivations, abilities, attitudes, and perceptions finds that they differ in profound ways from what is typically assumed. The result is that public policy acquires even greater significance, since rather than merely facilitating the conduct of human affairs, policy actually shapes their trajectory.

See on amazon.com

24
Giu
15

Simpler: The Future of Government – Kindle edition by Cass R. Sunstein. Politics & Social Sciences Kindle eBooks @ Amazon.com.

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

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Simpler government arrived four years ago. It helped put money in your pocket. It saved hours of your time. It improved your children’s diet, lengthened your life span, and benefited businesses large and small. It did so by issuing fewer regulations, by insisting on smarter regulations, and by eliminating or improving old regulations. Cass R. Sunstein, as administrator of the most powerful White House office you’ve never heard of, oversaw it and explains how it works, why government will never be the same again (thank goodness), and what must happen in the future. 

Cutting-edge research in behavioral economics has influenced business and politics. Long at the forefront of that research, Sunstein, for three years President Obama’s “regulatory czar” heading the White House Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, oversaw a far-reaching restructuring of America’s regulatory state. In this highly anticipated book, Sunstein pulls back the curtain to show what was done, why Americans are better off as a result, and what the future has in store. 

The evidence is all around you, and more is coming soon. Simplified mortgages and student loan applications. Scorecards for colleges and universities. Improved labeling of food and energy-efficient appliances and cars. Calories printed on chain restaurant menus. Healthier food in public schools. Backed by historic executive orders ensuring transparency and accountability, simpler government can be found in new initiatives that save money and time, improve health, and lengthen lives. Simpler: The Future of Government will transform what you think government can and should accomplish.

See on amazon.com

24
Giu
15

Machine Nudging

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

On the train from London to Brussels, the passenger sitting next to me suddenly gets agitated. I look at him puzzled, as this is a wagon entirely populated by people traveling for business and sudden noises or exuberant behaviour are noticeable like being dressed in a pink suit. My travel companion apologises and adds:”Damn, I forgot my phone in the station lounge. It’s a tragedy, it contains all the reminders for my pills”. After such statement, I can only be sympathetic.

Lately, I have been working a great deal with computer scientists and when I end up chatting about behavioural research and nudges, they usually look unimpressed. They often reply that they have been nudging for a long time in the design of user interfaces. Of course, it is not as simple as that, but I have been amazed by how much of the scientific literature on usability and human machine interaction contains overlaps with decision making research, in particular about the use of nudges.

As the online world becomes the most common and frequent context of information choice architecture in developed countries, the concepts and experience developed in decades of research related to improve usability of interfaces are a rich resource. In a way, traditional usability research used crude models of human decision making processes, but at the same time made large use of small scale empirical tests that informed them about valid solutions without the need of a sophisticated theory of human decision making.

See on behavioraleconomics.com

24
Giu
15

Rationality and Emotional Biases. Do You Know What They Are?

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

A common interpretation in behavioural finance is that rationality is the result of a pure cognitive process which can be behaviourally biased. In general, the bias has a negative connotation because it produces a distortion in the calculation of an outcome. When a decision-making process is cognitively biased the outcome leads to sub-optimal results or judgement errors. Roughly speaking, the subject might make irrational choices due to faulty reasoning, statistical errors, lack of information, memory errors, and the like. Differently, when the decision is emotionally biased, it means that the cognitive process has been influenced by feelings, affects, moods, and so on (let’s label these states “emotions”). This leads us to irrational decisions or actions. (Pompian 2006, Livet 2010, Mazzoli and Marinelli 2011, Fairchild 2014)

In this interpretation, cognitive and emotional processes are discrete and produced by two different systems: a cognitive and an emotional system. While cognitive biases are influences that affect rationality from within the cognitive system, emotional biases refer to those influences that affect the cognitive system from outside.

See on behavioraleconomics.com




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