Archivio per agosto 2015

31
Ago
15

Frontiers | Towards a neuroscience of social interaction | Frontiers in Human Neuroscience

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Towards a neuroscience of social interaction 

The burgeoning field of social neuroscience has begun to illuminate the complex biological bases of human social cognitive abilities. However, in spite of being based on the premise of investigating the neural bases of interacting individuals, a majority of studies has focused on studying brains in isolation using paradigms that investigate “offline” social cognition, i.e., social cognition from an observer’s point of view, rather than “online” social cognition, i.e., social cognition from an interactor’s point of view. Consequently, the neural correlates of real-time social interaction have remained largely elusive and may—paradoxically—be seen to represent the “dark matter” of social neuroscience (Schilbach et al., 2013).

More recently, a growing number of researchers have begun to study social cognition from an interactor’s point of view, based on the assumption that there is something fundamentally different when we are actively engaged with others in real-time social interaction as compared to when we merely observe them. Whereas for “offline” social cognition, interaction and feedback are merely a way of gathering data about the other person that feeds into processing algorithms “inside” the agent, it has been proposed that in “online” social interaction the knowledge of the other—at least in part—may reside in the interaction dynamics “between” the agents. Furthermore, being a participant in an interaction may entail a commitment toward being responsive created by important difference in the motivational foundations of “online” and “offline” social cognition.

See on journal.frontiersin.org

31
Ago
15

These Are The Mind Tricks Restaurants Use To Make You Spend More Money

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Be suspicious of the menu design, and other tips from restaurant industry insiders.

When you make decisions at a restaurant, you’re exercising your own free will: True or false?

Sorry to take away your agency, but the answer is mostly false. The second you walk into a dining establishment, you’re being slowly influenced to order the things the restaurant makes the most money selling. There are two ways it happens. One is at the corporate level, where chains design the whole experience to milk you of your money and keep you coming back. This is the realm of enticing photographs on menus, color theory (some say red makes you feel hungrier) or of things like McDonald’s odd mix of inviting design (bright lights that entice you in) and annoying design (the same over-bright lights also make you eat up and get out, and those seats are uncomfortable for a reason).

The other is possibly more interesting, consisting of the tricks used by small establishments to make you spend more. And like any home-spun psychological theory, these techniques are a mixture of solid advice and hokum.

See on fastcoexist.com

31
Ago
15

Four money ‘nudges’ the Government recently used on you

See on Scoop.itNudges

Does giving bankers sweets make them more philanthropic? How the Government’s behavioural insights team are devising ways to alter your spending habits

See on telegraph.co.uk

31
Ago
15

What is the Behavioral Economics “Revolution” ?

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

#Behavioral_Economics #neuroeconomics Ariel Rubinstein

See on arielrubinstein.tau.ac.il

31
Ago
15

Frontiers | Intra- and interbrain synchronization and network properties when playing guitar in duets | Frontiers in Human Neuroscience

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

To further test and explore the hypothesis that synchronous oscillatory brain activity supports interpersonally coordinated behavior during dyadic music performance, we simultaneously recorded the electroencephalogram (EEG) from the brains of each of 12 guitar duets repeatedly playing a modified Rondo in two voices by C.G. Scheidler. Indicators of phase locking and of within-brain and between-brain phase coherence were obtained from complex time-frequency signals based on the Gabor transform. Analyses were restricted to the delta (1–4 Hz) and theta (4–8 Hz) frequency bands. We found that phase locking as well as within-brain and between-brain phase-coherence connection strengths were enhanced at frontal and central electrodes during periods that put particularly high demands on musical coordination. Phase locking was modulated in relation to the experimentally assigned musical roles of leader and follower, corroborating the functional significance of synchronous oscillations in dyadic music performance. Graph theory analyses revealed within-brain and hyperbrain networks with small-worldness properties that were enhanced during musical coordination periods, and community structures encompassing electrodes from both brains (hyperbrain modules). We conclude that brain mechanisms indexed by phase locking, phase coherence, and structural properties of within-brain and hyperbrain networks support interpersonal action coordination (IAC).

  

See on journal.frontiersin.org

31
Ago
15

Guitarists Can Sync Their Brains With Other Players, Forming A Giant Hyperbrain

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

The neuroscience of jamming is a giant mind meld. 

Guitarists perform a kind of mind-meld when they play together, syncing their brainwaves to the extent that they can anticipate each other’s moves. They also switch off the outside world while playing, leaving them in a tiny universe of them and their music.

A study by researchers Johanna Sänger, Viktor Müller, and Ulman Lindenberger used guitarists to investigate joint action, or “tasks that require the close alignment (coordination) of one’s own and the other’s action in real time.” Tasks like playing in a band or in a duet.

By measuring the brain activity of the players while they performed together, the studyfound that their brainwaves locked in sync. To preclude the possibility that just playing the same music would induce the same brain patterns in both players, the study used songs with two parts. Further, a leader and follower were assigned, one setting time and the other following.

See on fastcoexist.com

31
Ago
15

Back to Fundamentals: Equilibrium in Abstract Economie – By Michael Richter and Ariel Rubinstein

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

We propose a new abstract definition of equilibrium in the spirit of competitive equilibrium: a profile of alternatives and a public ordering (expressing prestige, price, or a social norm) such that each agent prefers his assigned alternative to all lower-ranked ones. The equilibrium operates in an abstract setting built upon a concept of convexity borrowed from convex geometry. We apply the concept to a variety of convex economies and relate it to Pareto optimality. The “magic” of linear equilibrium prices is put into perspective by establishing an analogy between linear functions in the standard convexity and “primitive orderings” in the abstract convexity. (JEL I11, I18, J44, K13)

See on arielrubinstein.tau.ac.il




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