• Below a critical threshold equivalent to (d) cyclists cooperate (by passing).
• Above threshold cyclists sustain pace of stronger front rider but cannot pass.
• When at max speeds pelotons sort so range of max capacity is equivalent to 1-d.
• Below this range weak cyclists separate from peloton at this max speed.
• Simulation experiments show a tendency towards predominantly free-riding behavior.
The peloton superorganism and protocooperative behavior
Applied Mathematics and Computation
Volume 270, 1 November 2015, Pages 179–192