Archivio per novembre 2015

27
Nov
15

Viewpoint: Behavioural economics: a model of thinking | Market Research Society

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

As behavioural economics has become more embedded in the world of research, so too have the questions that are asked of it. It no longer remains in the domain of behaviour change projects in the public sector and financial services, and there is certainly little of the discussion around its relevance to us as market research practitioners that was around even 18 months ago.

There’s lots of talk of BE as a methodology or spawning new methodologies – auto-ethnography, contextual research, System One ad testing, the blink test, and so on. But I’d propose that it’s about a holistic approach, a way of thinking that transcends every project and every aspect of a project regardless of sector or even of brief. BE has come of age, it needs to be thought of as a model of thinking rather than a series of methods and tools.

Daniel Kahneman said of BE, that ‘humans are to thinking as cats are to swimming’. In other words, we can do it if we really have to … but mostly we don’t. It is simply too effortful to do it all the time. And this is a generic issue, not one that is confined to certain types of brief.

One of the ways that we know when something has real power and relevance is to look at how it manifests in our everyday language. This is certainly the case in BE, and what’s more, being more conscious of our own language will help us spot biases at play in our own lives, giving us valuable clues as to how to take them into account in a research and marketing context.

So, let’s take a closer look at the types of language we tend to bump into on a daily basis, and what they really mean.

See on mrs.org.uk

27
Nov
15

Behavioral Economics and Public Health: Amazon.co.uk: Christina A. Roberto, Ichiro Kawachi: 9780199398331: Books

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

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Behavioral Economics and Public Health

Product by Oxford University Press ~ More about this product


Price: £41.99

Behavioral economics has potential to offer novel solutions to some of today’s most pressing public health problems: How do we persuade people to eat healthy and lose weight? How can health professionals communicate health risks in a way that is heeded? How can food labeling be modified to inform healthy food choices? 

Behavioral Economics and Public Health is the first book to apply the groundbreaking insights of behavioral economics to the persisting problems of health behaviors and behavior change. In addition to providing a primer on the behavioral economics principles that are most relevant to public health, this book offers details on how these principles can be employed to mitigating the world’s greatest health threats, including obesity, smoking, risky sexual behavior, and excessive drinking. With contributions from an international team of scholars from psychology, economics, marketing, public health, and medicine, this book is a trailblazing new approach to the most difficult and important problems of our time.

See on amazon.co.uk

27
Nov
15

The Truth About the Ways People Lie

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

A new documentary explores how and why humans cheat, lie and steal. 

All of our pants are almost constantly on metaphorical fire, is the basic impression I got after watching the new documentary Dishonesty: The Truth About Lies. The film is a fascinating exploration of the current scientific research on the little things that nudge people into lying, cheating, and stealing, and most of the research comes from behavioral economist Dan Ariely, the Duke professor and best-selling author of books like Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions.

The film will be screening for a short time in New York at the IFC Center, starting this Friday. (For bonus social-science nerd fun, Ariely and director Yael Melamde will be at the Friday and Saturday shows to answer audience questions.) But Science of Us got an advance screener of the film, so, herewith, some of the most interesting findings on dishonesty the documentary covers. (All direct quotes in the post are taken from the film. Honest.) 

See on nymag.com

27
Nov
15

Agent-based Simulations of a Logistic System

See on Scoop.itComplex Insight – Understanding our world

Two simulations are executed with two different sets of parameters. It highlights the movement of goods over the Seine axis territory and also, how distinct …

ComplexInsight’s insight:

Agent based simulastion of logistics is becoming increasingly commmon – nice example.

See on youtube.com

27
Nov
15

Information Dynamics in the Interaction between a Prey and a Predator Fish

See on Scoop.itComplex Insight – Understanding our world

Accessing information efficiently is vital for animals to make the optimal decisions, and it is particularly important when they are facing predators. Yet until now, very few quantitative conclusions have been drawn about the information dynamics in the interaction between animals due to the lack of appropriate theoretic measures. Here, we employ transfer entropy (TE), a new information-theoretic and model-free measure, to explore the information dynamics in the interaction between a predator and a prey fish. We conduct experiments in which a predator and a prey fish are confined in separate parts of an arena, but can communicate with each other visually and tactilely. TE is calculated on the pair’s coarse-grained state of the trajectories. We find that the prey’s TE is generally significantly bigger than the predator’s during trials, which indicates that the dominant information is transmitted from predator to prey. We then demonstrate that the direction of information flow is irrelevant to the parameters used in the coarse-grained procedures. We further calculate the prey’s TE at different distances between it and the predator. The resulted figure shows that there is a high plateau in the mid-range of the distance and that drops quickly at both the near and the far ends. This result reflects that there is a sensitive space zone where the prey is highly vigilant of the predator’s position.

Information Dynamics in the Interaction between a Prey and a Predator Fish
Feng Hu, Li-Juan Nie and Shi-Jian Fu

Entropy 2015, 17(10), 7230-7241; http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e17107230 ;

ComplexInsight’s insight:

Interesting use of entropy for information transfer in predator-prey interactions.  Good paper – worth reading and a lot worth thinking  further about.

See on mdpi.com

27
Nov
15

Why daydreaming is good for you

See on Scoop.itBrain Tricks: Belief, Bias, and Blindspots

Most people think of rest as the times when we stop work or movement in order to relax, sleep, or recover strength. But historians and anthropologists have discovered that what counts as rest has varied a lot over time and across cultures.

See on psypost.org

27
Nov
15

Turnbull government creates new ‘behavioural economics’ team of advisers

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

The Turnbull government is creating a “behavioural economics” team of advisers, to be housed inside the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet.

See on smh.com.au

19
Nov
15

Location, location, location: Effects of cross-religious primes on prosocial behaviour

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Priming with religious concepts is known to have a positive effect on prosocial behavior, however the effects of religious primes associated with outgroups remain unknown. To explore this, we conducted a field experiment in a multi-cultural,

See on academia.edu

17
Nov
15

Nobel Laureate Joseph Stiglitz on “Rewriting the Rules of the American Economy” – Truth-Out

See on Scoop.itreal utopias

One of the nation’s leading economists is calling for a comprehensive overhaul of the US economy.

See on truth-out.org

17
Nov
15

Coupled catastrophes: sudden shifts cascade and hop among interdependent systems

See on Scoop.itPapers

An important challenge in several disciplines is to understand how sudden changes can propagate among coupled systems. Examples include the synchronization of business cycles, population collapse in patchy ecosystems, markets shifting to a new technology platform, collapses in prices and in confidence in financial markets, and protests erupting in multiple countries. A number of mathematical models of these phenomena have multiple equilibria separated by saddle-node bifurcations. We study this behaviour in its normal form as fast–slow ordinary differential equations. In our model, a system consists of multiple subsystems, such as countries in the global economy or patches of an ecosystem. Each subsystem is described by a scalar quantity, such as economic output or population, that undergoes sudden changes via saddle-node bifurcations. The subsystems are coupled via their scalar quantity (e.g. trade couples economic output; diffusion couples populations); that coupling moves the locations of their bifurcations. The model demonstrates two ways in which sudden changes can propagate: they can cascade (one causing the next), or they can hop over subsystems. The latter is absent from classic models of cascades. For an application, we study the Arab Spring protests. After connecting the model to sociological theories that have bistability, we use socioeconomic data to estimate relative proximities to tipping points and Facebook data to estimate couplings among countries. We find that although protests tend to spread locally, they also seem to ‘hop’ over countries, like in the stylized model; this result highlights a new class of temporal motifs in longitudinal network datasets.

 

Coupled catastrophes: sudden shifts cascade and hop among interdependent systems

Charles D. Brummitt, George Barnett, Raissa M. D’Souza

J. R. Soc. Interface 2015 12 20150712; http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2015.0712. Published 11 November 2015. Open Access.

See on rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org




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