Archivio per dicembre 2015

30
Dic
15

Real Business Intelligence II

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Natural data processing nodes tend to specialize themselves. Our brain works with different internal structures where neurons are activated under different kind of stimuli. Neuroscientists have created maps of different regions for the different senses. This kind of regions are located in similar for all individuals, however this is not totally true. People that have born with a congenital lack of a sense can use that part of the brain to store information from other stimuli. This has been demonstrated scientifically many years ago, with an experiment where a group of cats was blinded at born. The results showed that the visual cortex in the blinded cats was activated with other kind of stimuli while the sighted group of control preserved the location of the visual cortex. This does not happen in individuals that have lost vision some years later. In this case, visual cortex usually is not activated again.

See on qualityresearch.wordpress.com

29
Dic
15

High level job at Consumer Financial Protection Bureau – Decision Science News

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau is seeking an experienced researcher to lead the Decision Making and Behavioral Studies team within the Office of Research. This interdisciplinary team holds expertise spanning economics, psychology, and decision sciences, and conducts primary research to build foundational knowledge on behavioral science as well as provides input into policy projects. The team designs and fields surveys; implements the current research agendas on disclosure and the dynamics of household balance sheets; support rulemaking teams in developing and implementing policy; advises cross-agency teams on the design and evaluation of public-facing tools to support consumer financial decision-making; develops and conducts economic experiments in laboratory settings that contribute to foundational knowledge on consumer decision-making; and collaborates with financial services providers to conduct rigorous field trials of financial products and disclosures that have promising opportunities for consumers’ finances and comprehension of financial products.The ideal candidates will have a Ph.D. in economics, psychology, or other social sciences; demonstrated expertise in behavioral science through peer-reviewed journal articles and other publications; experience leading projects that incorporate primary data collection methods, including randomized controlled field trials, laboratory experiments, or surveys; and leadership and management experience.

See on decisionsciencenews.com

28
Dic
15

Using a computational model to quantify the potential impact of changing the placement of healthy beverages in stores as an intervention to “Nudge” adolescent behavior choice

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

BackgroundProduct placement influences consumer choices in retail stores. While sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) manufacturers expend considerable effort and resources to determine how product placement may increase SSB purchases, the information is proprietary and not available to the public health and research community. This study aims to quantify the effect of non-SSB product placement in corner stores on adolescent beverage purchasing behavior. Corner stores are small privately owned retail stores that are important beverage providers in low-income neighborhoods – where adolescents have higher rates of obesity.MethodsUsing data from a community-based survey in Baltimore and parameters from the marketing literature, we developed a decision-analytic model to simulate and quantify how placement of healthy beverage (placement in beverage cooler closest to entrance, distance from back of the store, and vertical placement within each cooler) affects the probability of adolescents purchasing non-SSBs.ResultsIn our simulation, non-SSB purchases were 2.8 times higher when placed in the “optimal location” – on the second or third shelves of the front cooler – compared to the worst location on the bottom shelf of the cooler farthest from the entrance. Based on our model results and survey data, we project that moving non-SSBs from the worst to the optional location would result in approximately 5.2 million more non-SSBs purchased by Baltimore adolescents annually.ConclusionsOur study is the first to quantify the potential impact of changing placement of beverages in corner stores. Our findings suggest that this could be a low-cost, yet impactful strategy to nudge this population—highly susceptible to obesity—towards healthier beverage decisions.

See on ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

28
Dic
15

Artificial Intelligence and Pro-Social Behaviour

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

If artificial intelligence (AI) were achievable, what would the conse-quences be for human society?1Perhaps surprisingly, the answer to this questionis already at hand. We are achieving rapid and accelerating success in our questto build AI. That very success — and the slowness with which both the academiccommunity and the general public have come to recognise it — has shown how lit-tle we understand our own intelligence, and its role in our lives and culture. Here Iattempt to address this problem of understanding, exploiting a variety of scientificevidence, including social simulation. I begin by reviewing current progress in AI,which is profound but underestimated. I suggest this lack of recognition is due to themistaken belief that intelligence implies agency. I next examine the related questionof human uniqueness: why do only we have language and extensive built culture? Iuse models and data to show that the propensities to use culture, share informationand behave altruistically are neither unique to humans nor inexplicable to biology,but rather our uniqueness hinges on the extent  of our capacities for communicationand memory. Finally, I apply the impact of AI on extending our intelligence to thesetheories, to predict—and observe—consequences of AI on human societies and in-dividual human lives. I make and support policy recommendations based on thesepredictions

See on academia.edu

28
Dic
15

Tolerant Paternalism: Pro-ethical Design as a Resolution of the Dilemma of Toleration

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Abstract Toleration is one of the fundamental principles that inform the design of a democratic and liberal society. Unfortunately, its adoption seems inconsistentw it the adoption of paternalistically benevolent policies, which represent a valuablemechanism to improve individuals’ well-being. 

In this paper, I refer to this tensionas the dilemma of toleration. The dilemma is not new. It arises when an agent Awould like to be tolerant and respectful towards another agent B’s choices but, at thesame time, A is altruistically concerned that a particular course of action wouldharm, or at least not improve, B’s well-being, so A would also like to be helpful andseeks to ensure that B does not pursue such course of action, for B’s sake and evenagainst B’s consent. In the article, I clarify the specific nature of the dilemma andshow that several forms of paternalism, including those based on ethics by designand structural nudging , may not be suitable to resolve it. I then argue that one formof paternalism, based on pro-ethical design, can be compatible with toleration andhence with the respect for B’s choices, by operating only at the informational andnot at the structural level of a choice architecture. This provides a successful res-olution of the dilemma, showing that tolerant paternalism is not an oxymoron but aviable approach to the design of a democratic and liberal society.

See on academia.edu

28
Dic
15

Compliance key to bank adoption of Bitcoin

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Simon Dixon (see video below), CEO & Co-Founder of BnkToTheFuture.com, says the inventions behind bitcoin are significant. The first is a system whereby all financial transactions are reported into a transparent ledger. This is in contrast to a bank that maintains a private ledger. Bitcoin is also the largest computer network in the world and is powered by hundreds of thousands of computers around the world creating the largest super computer in the world. Finally, bitcoin created a system in how money is created in a transparent way where you would know the monetary policy and the money (fiat currency) supply at any moment in time. In contrast, traditional Central Banks adjust their policies of how money is created over time.

See on enterpriseinnovation.net

27
Dic
15

How cognitive neuroscience can affect consumer decision-making – Marketing Magazine

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Cognitive neuroscience is the study of how we, as human beings, actually make decisions. Although science and creative don’t traditionally go hand in hand, it’s now undeniable that applying learnings from this branch of science to our creative executions in the brand design world can help to successfully influence consumer decision-making for commercial success.By now, most of us in the marketing and design world who are interested in behavioural economics and cognitive neuroscience have heard that the vast majority of decisions we make are not rational. However, that doesn’t necessarily mean we understand the implications of the consumer irrationality at the point of purchase. The marketing industry constantly tries to second-guess how the consumer will behave, yet it remains stuck in the rut of relying on rational measures to achieve this – for example using surveys and focus groups. Cognitive neuroscience tells us categorically that we cannot ask consumers directly what they want, or indeed how they will respond to changes, as they simply don’t have the ability to know what they actually will do. Consumers are no more capable of predicting how they will respond under the pressures of a shopping environment than we are capable of guessing.

See on marketingmag.com.au

22
Dic
15

Biochemical Mechanism Could Explain How Long-Term Memories Are Formed

See on Scoop.itLearning & Mind & Brain

For a memory to endure, and not fade away, the synaptic connections must be kept strong. In a previous study, Kandel and Si identified CPEB as a synaptic protein that is responsible for maintaining the strength of these connections in the sea slug, a model organism used in memory research. In subsequent research at the Stowers Institute, Si and his team identified Orb2 as the fruit fly version of the CPEB synaptic protein.
Illustration of synapses.

In their latest study, Mohammed ‘Repon’ Khan, a predoctoral researcher in the Si Lab and first author of the Cell paper, determined that Orb2 exists in two distinct physical states, monomeric and oligomeric. Monomeric Orb2 is a single molecule capable of binding to other molecules. Like CPEB, oligomeric Orb2 is prion-like – that is, it’s a self-copying cluster. However, unlike disease-causing prions, oligomeric Orb2 and CPEB are not toxic.

The paper describes how monomeric Orb2 represses while oligomeric or prion-like Orb2 activates a crucial step in the complex cellular process that leads to protein synthesis. During this crucial step, messenger RNA (mRNA), which is a RNA copy of a gene’s recipe for a protein, is translated by the cell’s ribosome into the sequence of amino acids that will make up a newly synthesized protein.

“We propose that the monomeric form of Orb2 binds to the target mRNA, and the bound mRNA is kept in a repressed state,” explains Khan.

The Stowers scientists also determined that prion-like Orb2 not only activates translation but imparts its translational state to nearby monomer forms of Orb2. As a result, monomeric Orb2 is transformed into prion-like Orb2, and its role in translation switches from repression to activation. Si thinks this switch is the possible mechanism by which fleeting experiences create an enduring memory.

“Because of the self-sustaining nature of the prion-like state, this creates a local and self-sustaining translation activation of Orb2-target mRNA, which maintains the changed state of synaptic activity over time,” says Si.

The discovery that the two distinct states of Orb2 have opposing roles in the translation process provides “for the first time a biochemical mechanism of synapse-specific persistent translation and long-lasting memory,” he states.

See on neurosciencenews.com

22
Dic
15

Verba Woland: la neuroeconomia e la corruzione politica.

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

[Il Prof.Woland per La Città Invisibile]
La neuroeconomia è una scienza giovanissima che studia – soprattutto mediante la tecnica delle neuro immagini, come la risonanza magnetica funzionale (fMRI) –  i …
See on bruschi.blogautore.espresso.repubblica.it

22
Dic
15

Forbes Welcome

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

At first glance, a neuroscientist and a business school might seem an odd fit. But in fact economists have been paying increasing attention to how the brain works.The children’s classic The Polar Express tells the fanciful story of a young boy’s journey to the North Pole on a train filled with chocolate and candy. But when Warner Brothers released a $165 million computer-animated version of the tale, many critics described the film not as a happy Christmas fantasy but as a horror movie. “This season’s biggest holiday extravaganza, ‘The Polar Express,’ should be subtitled ‘The Night of the Living Dead,’ ” groused CNN reviewer Paul Clinton. “ If I were a kid, I’d have nightmares,” wrote Geoff Pevere in the Toronto Star.The problem was that while the film’s characters appeared astonishingly human in many ways, their eyes looked lifeless. Viewers were creeped out.Humans are often delighted by objects with vaguely humanoid characteristics—think Pet Rocks, toy robots, or sock puppets. But there is a point at which an object looks almost human, yet not quite human enough, and the result is disturbing. It’s called the uncanny valley. And for Christine Looser, it’s the starting point for a line of research aimed at discovering how our brains detect life, and how we distinguish the cognizant from the mindless.“What I’m interested in is how and why the brain evolved to pay attention to other people,” says Looser, a fellow at Harvard Business School who sports a PhD in cognitive neuroscience.

See on forbes.com




Time is real? I think not

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