Archivio per 28 dicembre 2015

28
Dic
15

Using a computational model to quantify the potential impact of changing the placement of healthy beverages in stores as an intervention to “Nudge” adolescent behavior choice

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

BackgroundProduct placement influences consumer choices in retail stores. While sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) manufacturers expend considerable effort and resources to determine how product placement may increase SSB purchases, the information is proprietary and not available to the public health and research community. This study aims to quantify the effect of non-SSB product placement in corner stores on adolescent beverage purchasing behavior. Corner stores are small privately owned retail stores that are important beverage providers in low-income neighborhoods – where adolescents have higher rates of obesity.MethodsUsing data from a community-based survey in Baltimore and parameters from the marketing literature, we developed a decision-analytic model to simulate and quantify how placement of healthy beverage (placement in beverage cooler closest to entrance, distance from back of the store, and vertical placement within each cooler) affects the probability of adolescents purchasing non-SSBs.ResultsIn our simulation, non-SSB purchases were 2.8 times higher when placed in the “optimal location” – on the second or third shelves of the front cooler – compared to the worst location on the bottom shelf of the cooler farthest from the entrance. Based on our model results and survey data, we project that moving non-SSBs from the worst to the optional location would result in approximately 5.2 million more non-SSBs purchased by Baltimore adolescents annually.ConclusionsOur study is the first to quantify the potential impact of changing placement of beverages in corner stores. Our findings suggest that this could be a low-cost, yet impactful strategy to nudge this population—highly susceptible to obesity—towards healthier beverage decisions.

See on ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

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28
Dic
15

Artificial Intelligence and Pro-Social Behaviour

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

If artificial intelligence (AI) were achievable, what would the conse-quences be for human society?1Perhaps surprisingly, the answer to this questionis already at hand. We are achieving rapid and accelerating success in our questto build AI. That very success — and the slowness with which both the academiccommunity and the general public have come to recognise it — has shown how lit-tle we understand our own intelligence, and its role in our lives and culture. Here Iattempt to address this problem of understanding, exploiting a variety of scientificevidence, including social simulation. I begin by reviewing current progress in AI,which is profound but underestimated. I suggest this lack of recognition is due to themistaken belief that intelligence implies agency. I next examine the related questionof human uniqueness: why do only we have language and extensive built culture? Iuse models and data to show that the propensities to use culture, share informationand behave altruistically are neither unique to humans nor inexplicable to biology,but rather our uniqueness hinges on the extent  of our capacities for communicationand memory. Finally, I apply the impact of AI on extending our intelligence to thesetheories, to predict—and observe—consequences of AI on human societies and in-dividual human lives. I make and support policy recommendations based on thesepredictions

See on academia.edu

28
Dic
15

Tolerant Paternalism: Pro-ethical Design as a Resolution of the Dilemma of Toleration

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Abstract Toleration is one of the fundamental principles that inform the design of a democratic and liberal society. Unfortunately, its adoption seems inconsistentw it the adoption of paternalistically benevolent policies, which represent a valuablemechanism to improve individuals’ well-being. 

In this paper, I refer to this tensionas the dilemma of toleration. The dilemma is not new. It arises when an agent Awould like to be tolerant and respectful towards another agent B’s choices but, at thesame time, A is altruistically concerned that a particular course of action wouldharm, or at least not improve, B’s well-being, so A would also like to be helpful andseeks to ensure that B does not pursue such course of action, for B’s sake and evenagainst B’s consent. In the article, I clarify the specific nature of the dilemma andshow that several forms of paternalism, including those based on ethics by designand structural nudging , may not be suitable to resolve it. I then argue that one formof paternalism, based on pro-ethical design, can be compatible with toleration andhence with the respect for B’s choices, by operating only at the informational andnot at the structural level of a choice architecture. This provides a successful res-olution of the dilemma, showing that tolerant paternalism is not an oxymoron but aviable approach to the design of a democratic and liberal society.

See on academia.edu

28
Dic
15

Compliance key to bank adoption of Bitcoin

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Simon Dixon (see video below), CEO & Co-Founder of BnkToTheFuture.com, says the inventions behind bitcoin are significant. The first is a system whereby all financial transactions are reported into a transparent ledger. This is in contrast to a bank that maintains a private ledger. Bitcoin is also the largest computer network in the world and is powered by hundreds of thousands of computers around the world creating the largest super computer in the world. Finally, bitcoin created a system in how money is created in a transparent way where you would know the monetary policy and the money (fiat currency) supply at any moment in time. In contrast, traditional Central Banks adjust their policies of how money is created over time.

See on enterpriseinnovation.net




Time is real? I think not

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