Archivio per 9 gennaio 2016

09
Gen
16

Long-term effects of marijuana use on the brain

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Abstract
Questions surrounding the effects of chronic marijuana use on brain structure continue to increase. To date, however, findings remain inconclusive. In this comprehensive study that aimed to characterize brain alterations associated with chronic marijuana use, we measured gray matter (GM) volume via structural MRI across the whole brain by using voxel-based morphology, synchrony among abnormal GM regions during resting state via functional connectivity MRI, and white matter integrity (i.e., structural connectivity) between the abnormal GM regions via diffusion tensor imaging in 48 marijuana users and 62 age- and sex-matched nonusing controls. The results showed that compared with controls, marijuana users had significantly less bilateral orbitofrontal gyri volume, higher functional connectivity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) network, and higher structural connectivity in tracts that innervate the OFC (forceps minor) as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA). Increased OFC functional connectivity in marijuana users was associated with earlier age of onset. Lastly, a quadratic trend was observed suggesting that the FA of the forceps minor tract initially increased following regular marijuana use but decreased with protracted regular use. This pattern may indicate differential effects of initial and chronic marijuana use that may reflect complex neuroadaptive processes in response to marijuana use. Despite the observed age of onset effects, longitudinal studies are needed to determine causality of these effects.

See on pnas.org

09
Gen
16

2015 Annual Report | Social and Behavioral Sciences Team

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

This report was developed by the Social and Behavioral Sciences Team (SBST), a cross-agency team organized under the National Science and Technology Council. Its publication marks an important milestone for the Administration’s policy of using behavioral science to strengthen the ways in which Federal programs and policies serve the nation — a policy that was codified in September 2015.In building an initial portfolio of work, SBST focused on projects in two areas where behavioral science had a strong role to play and impacts could be demonstrated relatively rapidly:Assisting Americans by Streamlining Access to Programs: projects to streamline access to programs in retirement security, education, healthcare, and economic opportunity.Improving Government Efficiency: projects to improve program integrity, promote efficiencies by government workers, and help officials make cost-effective decisions.In nearly all cases, SBST was able to generate evidence about the effectiveness of these behavioral insights applications using randomized evaluations — the gold standard of evidence among policymakers and social scientists.

See on sbst.gov

09
Gen
16

The Workbooks — Irrational Labs

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

These workbooks condense years of deep academic learnings in behavioral economics, with the goal to help product people understand human behavior and design powerful experiences.

See on irrationallabs.org

09
Gen
16

Psychology’s reproducibility project listed by Science Magazine as a top breakthrough of 2015 – Decision Science News

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Science Magazine’s list of scientific breakthroughs for 2015 included the Psychology’sreproducibility project. While it didn’t win breakthrough of the year, the reproducibility project has been praised in other year-end roundups, according to the APS.Low replication rates hurt psychology’s reputation, but the project that discovered these rates helped it. The positive effects of the project will be felt for a long time.

See on decisionsciencenews.com




Time is real? I think not

gennaio: 2016
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