Archivio per gennaio 2016



29
Gen
16

neurosciencestuff:

The Components of Imitation

We learn many things through imitation: how to walk, play an instument, sports, and even more. What are the processes in the brain responsible for imitation? For some years now, science has been examining the role of mirror neurons, but there is still much to understand. One study focusing on neurological patients showed that at least two components are involved in imitating gestures, each from a different hemisphere of the brain. The study, which SISSA participated in, was published in Neuropsychologia.

After a brain injury (caused by stroke or hemorrhage, for example), patients may have difficulty imitating gestures and movements of others (ideomotor apraxia). In the history of neuropsychology, these studies are among the best known (the first date back to the early 1900’s) as these deficits hinder therapy aimed at recovering motor skills, since the patient cannot perform gestures by imitating the doctor. In the last twenty years, these studies have found new significance thanks to the discovery of mirror neurons, and yet little is known about these processes. Many scientists think the left hemisphere plays a dominant role because this problem most often surfaces in cases of unilateral brain-damage of the left hemisphere. How then, can we explain the small percentage of apraxic patients who have suffered unilateral lesions to the right hemisphere?

Paola Mengotti, at SISSA at the time of the study, now at Forschungszentrum Jülich in Germany, SISSA Professor and Head of the iNSuLa Laboratory (Neuroscience and Society), Raffaella Rumiati, and colleagues conducted a study to answer this question. Twenty patients (visited at San Camillo in Venice and Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti in Trieste) with unilateral brain lesions in the left or right hemispheres, plus a control group participated in the study. The initial idea was that imitation is made up of at least two distinct tasks: motor imitation, and a spatial component. When we have to imitate someone else’s movements, we not only have to repeat the actions, but we also have to translate them to our body (mirror them). In the study, patients performed imitation tasks using one of the two components, motor or spatial. Performance for each component was then compared and categorized in relation to the type of lesion.

What emerged is that what counts in imitation is the similarity between what is seen and what is produced, and this of course depends on the individual type of deficit. “Analyzing the performance of two imitation tasks by patients with lesions in the right hemisphere and the left hemisphere, we were able to demonstrate that imitation is based on the similarity between the observed action and the one produced,” explains Rumiati. “This similarity reflects either an anatomical match or a spatial one. Lesions in the left hemisphere affect the former while lesions in the right hemisphere affect the latter.”

Annunci
29
Gen
16

Bounded Rationality ha compiuto 3 anni oggi!

22
Gen
16

Human Memory Capacity is TEN TIMES MORE Than Previously Thought – PsyBlog

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

A human brain could hold as much information as the entire internet, a new study finds.

Human memory capacity is in the petabyte range, researchers at the Salk Institute have now found.

This is ten times larger than was previously thought.

Professor Terry Sejnowski, the study’s first author, said:

“This is a real bombshell in the field of neuroscience.

We discovered the key to unlocking the design principle for how hippocampal neurons function with low energy but high computation power.

Our new measurements of the brain’s memory capacity increase conservative estimates by a factor of 10 to at least a petabyte, in the same ballpark as the World Wide Web.”

The conclusions come from an analysis of the brain’s synapses.The picture above shows a synapse between an axon (green) and dendrite (yellow). 

See on spring.org.uk

21
Gen
16

Resting brain chatter predicts ability to learn second language

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Learning your native language as a child is tricky enough, but learning a second is a labor of love.

Once we have left the golden years of youth, learning new linguistic skills can be a hard-won battle.

Researchers at McGill University in Montreal, Canada, used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the normal resting activity of students’ brains before embarking on a French language course.

The team, led by Xiaoqian Chai and Denise Klein, measured whether differences in connectivity predicted the success of the language students.

The results, published in The Journal of Neuroscience this week, are a tantalizing peek into why some people seem to learn second languages with more ease than others.

If you are planning on learning a second language, the connectivity of your brain at rest might predict how easy, or how difficult, you find it. 

See on medicalnewstoday.com

21
Gen
16

Pensare l’impensabile: Otto Neurath e l’economia senza moneta

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

By Mario Ricciardi in Economics and Otto Neurath.

See on academia.edu

21
Gen
16

Mental depletion complicates financial decisions for the poor | PBS NewsHour

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Why does it become more difficult to make good financial decisions when you’re poor?

Last month, behavioral economist Dan Ariely and his team at the Center for Advanced Hindsight opened up the Common Cents Lab. Its goal is twofold: to examine how those living in poverty misspend their money and to help the poor make better financial decisions. I spoke with Ariely about the center, our not-so-rational spending and why making good financial decisions becomes even more difficult when you’re poor. For more on the topic, read the second half of Making Sen$e’s interview with Ariely here. The following conversation has been edited and condensed for clarity and length.

See on pbs.org

20
Gen
16

Helping Doctors and Patients Make Sense of Health Statistics

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Empty description

See on stat.berkeley.edu




Time is real? I think not

gennaio: 2016
L M M G V S D
« Dic   Feb »
 123
45678910
11121314151617
18192021222324
25262728293031

Commenti recenti

Inserisci il tuo indirizzo e-mail per iscriverti a questo blog e ricevere notifiche di nuovi messaggi per e-mail.

Segui assieme ad altri 959 follower

Latest Tweets

Errore: Twitter non ha risposto. Aspetta qualche minuto e aggiorna la pagina.


%d blogger hanno fatto clic su Mi Piace per questo: