Archivio per Mag 2016



28
Mag
16

Structural balance and opinion separation in trust-mistrust social networks

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Structural balance theory has been developed in sociology and psychology to explain how interacting agents, e.g., countries, political parties, opinionated individuals, with mixed trust and mistrust relationships evolve into polarized camps. Recent results have shown that structural balance is necessary for polarization in networks with fixed, strongly connected neighbor relationships when the opinion dynamics are described by DeGroot-type averaging rules. We develop this line of research in this paper in two steps. First, we consider fixed, not necessarily strongly connected, neighbor relationships. It is shown that if the network includes a strongly connected subnetwork containing mistrust, which influences the rest of the network, then no opinion clustering is possible when that subnetwork is not structurally balanced; all the opinions become neutralized in the end. In contrast, it is shown that when that subnetwork is indeed structurally balanced, the agents of the subnetwork evolve into two polarized camps and the opinions of all other agents in the network spread between these two polarized opinions. Second, we consider time-varying neighbor relationships. We show that the opinion separation criteria carry over if the conditions for fixed graphs are extended to joint graphs. The results are developed for both discrete-time and continuous-time models.

See on arxiv.org

Annunci
28
Mag
16

K-method of cognitive mapping analysis

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Introduced a new calculation method (K-method) for cognitive maps. K – method consists of two consecutive steps. In the first stage, allocated subgraph composed of all paths from one selected node (concept) to another node (concept) from the cognitive map (directed weighted graph) . In the second stage, after the transition to an undirected graph (symmetrization adjacency matrix) the influence of one node to another calculated with Kirchhoff method. In the proposed method, there is no problem inherent in the impulse method. In addition to “pair” influence of one node to another, the average characteristics are introduced, allowing to calculate the impact of the selected node to all other nodes and the influence of all on the one selected. For impulse method similar to the average characteristics in the case where the pulse method “works” are introduced and compared with the K-method.

See on arxiv.org

28
Mag
16

Influence Activation Model: A New Perspective in Social Influence Analysis and Social Network Evolution

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

What drives the propensity for the social network dynamics? Social influence is believed to drive both off-line and on-line human behavior, however it has not been considered as a driver of social network evolution. Our analysis suggest that, while the network structure affects the spread of influence in social networks, the network is in turn shaped by social influence activity (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person’s attitudes and behaviors affect another’s). To that end, we develop a novel model of network evolution where the dynamics of network follow the mechanism of influence propagation, which are not captured by the existing network evolution models. Our experiments confirm the predictions of our model and demonstrate the important role that social influence can play in the process of network evolution. As well exploring the reason of social network evolution, different genres of social influence have been spotted having different effects on the network dynamics. These findings and methods are essential to both our understanding of the mechanisms that drive network evolution and our knowledge of the role of social influence in shaping the network structure.

Alessandro Cerboni’s insight:
Share your insight

See on arxiv.org

28
Mag
16

[1605.08409] Agent-based model of information spread in social networks

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

We propose evolution rules of the multiagent network and determine statistical patterns in life cycle of agents – information messages. The main discussed statistical pattern is connected with the number of likes and reposts for a message. This distribution corresponds to Weibull distribution according to modeling results. We examine proposed model using the data from Twitter, an online social networking service.

See on arxiv.org

28
Mag
16

Subtle psychological manipulations help people make smarter financial decisions

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Over the past 5 years, on behalf of state governments, nearly 100,000 Americans were gently manipulated by a team of social scientists. In 15 randomized, controlled trials, people in need of social services either encountered the standard application process or received a psychological nudge, in which the information was presented slightly differently—a postcard reminded them of deadlines, for example, or one choice was made easier than another. In 11 of the trials, the nudge modestly increased a person’s response rate or influenced them to make financially smarter choices. The results, to be presented tomorrow at the annual meeting of the Association for Psychological Science in Chicago, Illinois, add to the growing evidence that nudges developed by psychologists can make a real difference in the success of government programs. “These interventions have positive effects,” says Sim Sitkin, director of the Behavioral Science & Policy Center at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, who was not involved with the nudge trials. “They should be applied now.”

See on sciencemag.org

28
Mag
16

Government ‘nudges’ prove their worth

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Over the past 5 years, on behalf of state governments, nearly 100,000 Americans were gently manipulated by a team of social scientists. In 15 randomized, controlled trials, people in need of social services either encountered the standard application process or received a psychological nudge, in which the information was presented slightly differently—a postcard reminded them of deadlines, for example, or one choice was made easier than another. In 11 of the trials, the nudge modestly increased a person’s response rate or influenced them to make financially smarter choices. The results, presented this week at a meeting in Chicago, add to the growing evidence that nudges developed by psychologists can make a real difference in the success of government programs.

See on science.sciencemag.org

28
Mag
16

RISK, AMBIGUITY, AND DIVERSIFICATION

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Attitudes toward risk ináuence the decision to diversify among uncertain options. Yet, because in most situations the options are ambiguous, attitudes toward ambiguity may also play an important role. I conduct a laboratory experiment to investigate the e§ect of ambiguity on the decision to diversify. I Önd that diversiÖcation is more prevalent and more persistent under ambiguity than under risk. Moreover, excess diversiÖcation under ambiguity is driven by participants who stick with a status quo gamble when diversiÖcation among gambles is not feasible. This behavioral pattern cannot be accommodated by major theories of choice under ambiguity.

http://repository.urosario.edu.co/bitstream/handle/10336/12039/dt191.pdf?sequence=4&isAllowed=y

See on repository.urosario.edu.co




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