Archivio per 3 giugno 2016

03
Giu
16

Why science needs to break the spell of reductive materialism – Stuart Kauffman | Aeon Ideas

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

 We all sense something deeply deficient in our modern civilisation. Is it an absence of spirituality? Partly. A greedy materialism beyond what we really need? Yes, we are riding the tiger of late capitalism, where we make our living producing, selling and buying goods and services we often do not need on this finite planet. We cannot see ourselves, in part blinkered by unneeded scientism. The central framework of current physics is that of entailing laws. The central image is the billiard table as boundary conditions and the set of all possible initial conditions of position and momenta of the balls on the table. Then, given Isaac Newton’s laws in differential form, we deduce the deterministic trajectories of the balls. Our model of how to do science is to deduce new consequences, test them, accept or reject the results by diverse criteria, then retain or modify our theories. Science proceeds as Aristotle might have wished, in part as deduction. My aim is to begin to demolish this hegemony of reductive materialism and its grip on our scientific minds, and a far wider elicitation of a grossly misplaced scientism in modernity. Science is sciencia, knowledge. Being and becoming are more fundamental to all life and our humanity. We are, first of all, alive, and alive in a becoming biosphere. Despite bursts of extinction events and the fact that 99.9 per cent of all species that ever lived are gone, the biosphere flowers on. This flowering of the biosphere, more than a metaphor for human history, begins to suggest a mythic structure beyond that by which we currently live.We all sense something deeply deficient in our modern civilisation. Is it an absence of spirituality? Partly. A greedy materialism beyond what we really need? Yes, we are riding the tiger of late capitalism, where we make our living producing,

See on aeon.co

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03
Giu
16

Why the Human Brain Project Went Wrong–and How to Fix It

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Two years in, a $1-billion-plus effort to simulate the human brain is in disarray. Was it poor management, or is something fundamentally wrong with Big Science?

In 2013 the European Commission awarded neuroscientist Henry Markram $1.3 billion to pursue an audacious goal: building a simulation of the human brain. Markram’s initiative, the Human Brain Project (HBP), is now in disarray. Critics blame HBP management and the project’s unreasonably ambitious goals. Yet plenty of blame for the HBP’s woes rests with the project’s funders in Brussels, who put politics ahead of science and exercised poor oversight. The American BRAIN Initiative has shown that big neuroscience projects can succeed. The HBP is now being reorganized to help it do just that.

See on scientificamerican.com

03
Giu
16

Is free will an illusion?

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

Our influence on the future is something we take for granted as much as breathing. We accept that what will be is not yet determined, and that we can steer the course of events in one direction or another. This idea of free-dom, and the sense of responsibility it bestows, seems essential to day-to-day existence.Yet it is under attack as never before. Some scientists and philosophers argue that recent findings in neuroscience — such as data published last year suggesting that our brain makes decisions up to seven seconds before we become aware of them — along with the philosophical principle that any action must be dependent on preceding causes, imply that our behaviour is never self-generated and that freedom is an illusion

See on nature.com

03
Giu
16

Framing Creative Intentionality: Toward Heuristic Technology in Music Theory Pedagogy

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

By James Gutierrez in Music Education and Music Theory Pedagogy. Published in the proceedings of the International Conference on New Music Concepts, Treviso, Italy. 2015. pp. 103-108 While the technology increasingly mediating music learning presents

Abstract ÑWhile the technology increasingly mediating music learning presents exciting alternatives to conventional teaching methods, thus far there exists a tendency to merely transfer the linguistic frames from traditional pedagogical interactions. This study explores fixed rule/punishment-governed, adjective/verb-based linguistic framing embedded within music theory pedagogical procedure and its adverse effect on music-learnersÕ creative intentionality. An experiment measures the indirect effect of linguistic framing on a studentÕs creative intentionality, and affirms the superiority of a heuristic pedagogical model for both traditional classrooms and emerging technology-mediated learning

See on academia.edu

03
Giu
16

Neuroscience vs philosophy: Taking aim at free will : Nature News

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

The experiment helped to change John-Dylan Haynes’s outlook on life. In 2007, Haynes, a neuroscientist at the Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience in Berlin, put people into a brain scanner in which a display screen flashed a succession of random letters1. He told them to press a button with either their right or left index fingers whenever they felt the urge, and to remember the letter that was showing on the screen when they made the decision. The experiment used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to reveal brain activity in real time as the volunteers chose to use their right or left hands. The results were quite a surprise. “The first thought we had was ‘we have to check if this is real’,” says Haynes. “We came up with more sanity checks than I’ve ever seen in any other study before.” The conscious decision to push the button was made about a second before the actual act, but the team discovered that a pattern of brain activity seemed to predict that decision by as many as seven seconds. Long before the subjects were even aware of making a choice, it seems, their brains had already decided.

See on nature.com

03
Giu
16

Why a well-crafted melody has the power to colonise your mind – Patrick McNamara | Aeon Ideas

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

I am waltzing though the aisles of my local supermarket looking for a rice dish I can wolf down for a quick supper before heading out again across town. I finally locate the right aisle, slide to the dizzying array of rice choices, stick out my arm to snatch a random box when – bamm! That damn ‘Rice-A-Roni – The San Francisco Treat’ jingle from the 1960s involuntarily invades my consciousness, just as my mom sang it to me in my youth… I surrender to the jingle, throw the box into the cart (supremely annoyed with myself for doing so) and then head toward the beverage section. All of a sudden I notice I am moving in rhythm with the musak floating above in the supermarket’s sound system. Growing more annoyed with the obvious fact that this musak is shaping my movements, I notice I have somehow arrived at a stack of soda cartons with the soul-crushing ‘I’d Like to Buy the World a Coke’ and ‘Wanta Fanta? Don’t You Wanta’ jingles simultaneously coursing through my mind. Now thoroughly demoralised, I robotically place the Coke in my cart and proceed, vanquished, to the checkout where the din between my ears will hopefully cease, or at least fade away.

See on aeon.co

03
Giu
16

Un modello narrativo della costruzione del Sé

See on Scoop.itBounded Rationality and Beyond

La nozione di “Sé” è un rompicapo sia per i filosofi che per gli psicologi. Per quanto sembri familiare, si tratta di una familiarità che svanisce quando la si esamina più da vicino. Il mio Sé include i consanguinei, la mia automobile, l’università in cui mi sono laureato? Include il mio piacere nel prendere parte al simposio della New York Academy of Sciences? Questa indefinibilità dei limiti non si fa meno problematica se si ammette che il sé sia solo un insieme idiosincratico di ciò che si è registrato in ogni persona come risultato delle sue varie esperienze, ossia una funzione delle cosiddette differenze individuali. Se fosse così, allora i differenti sé sarebbero così radicalmente diversi l’uno dall’altro che sarebbe impossibile affrontare il problema delle “altre menti”. Così anche ammettendo che i sé sono in qualche modo costruiti, come facciamo a capire che cosa rende i nostri sé sufficientemente simili per renderli comunicabili intersoggettivamente, ma anche sufficientemente unici per essere distintamente individuali? A proposito del primo di questi aspetti, la comunicazione intersoggettiva, la costruzione di sé sembra essere spesso un prodotto secondario di altre attività orientate, come trovare il proprio posto nell’ordine sociale, giustificare ad altri le nostre intenzioni, razionalizzare la nostra delusione. Dunque per sapere qualcosa sul Sé, il vostro o quello di altri, dovete conoscere molto di più che solo i vostri o altrui sentimenti interni. Il Sé, per così dire, non è solo dentro di voi, ma “nel mondo”, in una qualche specie di mondo reale e in questo senso è sia privato che pubblico. Già la sola esistenza di un concetto del sé deve sicuramente dipendere da un qualche riadattamento filogenetico che rende possibile al Sé svilupparsi nel corso dell’ontogenesi, perché gli esseri umani sembrano essere capaci in modo speciale di distinguere il “Sé” dal “mondo” in modo così esteso. Tutti gli organismi hanno un sé? L’hanno i neonati, gli autistici gravi, le persone con un grave danno cerebrale? Che cos’è che si sviluppa nel Sé?

See on interattivamente.org




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