Archivio per marzo 2019

10
Mar
19

Power and Leadership: A Complex Systems Science Approach Part I—Representation and Dynamics

Complexity Digest

Historical social narratives are dominated by the actions of powerful individuals as well as competitions for power including warfare, revolutions, and political change. Advancing our understanding of the origins, types and competitive strength of different kinds of power may yield a scaffolding for understanding historical processes and mechanisms for winning or avoiding conflicts. Michael Mann introduced a framework distinguishing four types of power: political, military, economic, and ideological. We show this framework can be justified based upon motivations of individuals to transfer decision making authority to leaders: Desire to be a member of a collective, avoiding harm due to threat, gaining benefit due to payment, acquiring a value system. Constructing models of societies based upon these types of power enables us to distinguish between social systems and describe their dynamics. Dynamical processes include (a) competition between power systems, (b) competition between powerful individuals within a power system of a society…

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10
Mar
19

Why science needs philosophy

Complexity Digest

Despite the tight historical links between science and philosophy, present-day scientists often perceive philosophy as completely different from, and even antagonistic to, science. We argue here that, to the contrary, philosophy can have an important and productive impact on science.

 

Opinion: Why science needs philosophy
Lucie Laplane, Paolo Mantovani, Ralph Adolphs, Hasok Chang, Alberto Mantovani, Margaret McFall-Ngai, Carlo Rovelli, Elliott Sober, and Thomas Pradeu
PNAS March 5, 2019 116 (10) 3948-3952; https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1900357116

Source: www.pnas.org

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10
Mar
19

Rare and everywhere: Perspectives on scale-free networks

Complexity Digest

Are scale-free networks rare or universal? Important or not? We present the recent research about degree distributions of networks. This is a controversial topic, but, we argue, with some adjustments of the terminology, it does not have to be.

 

Rare and everywhere: Perspectives on scale-free networks
Petter Holme 
Nature Communicationsvolume 10, Article number: 1016 (2019)

Source: www.nature.com

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05
Mar
19

A Self-Organizing Grouping Approach for Ship Traffic Scheduling in Restricted One-Way Waterway

Complexity Digest

Ship scheduling optimization is one of the most effective ways to eliminate the bottlenecks of waterway transportation, especially in restricted one-way waterways. In this study, a novel scheduling model called self-organizing grouping is proposed to minimize two types of delay time, which are the waiting time and the extra navigation time caused by speed reduction. The proposed model schedules ships in an iterative way based on the distributed scheduling mode. To alleviate the impact of local scheduling on the overall traffic efficiency, a grouping method is proposed, in which the ships are divided into different groups based on their arrival time interval. Moreover, the ships in the same group are scheduled to minimize the interferences among them by incorporating a grouping improvement strategy. The strategy is used to deal with the influence of ships with very small speed. Experiments are carried out by comparing the proposed model with the first-come-first-serve…

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