Archivio per maggio 2019

13
Mag
19

Semantic information, agency, & physics

via Semantic information, agency, & physics

Shannon information theory provides various measures of so-called syntactic information, which reflect the amount of statistical correlation between systems. By contrast, the concept of ‘semantic information’ refers to those correlations which carry significance or ‘meaning’ for a given system. Semantic information plays an important role in many fields, including biology, cognitive science and philosophy, and there has been a long-standing interest in formulating a broadly applicable and formal theory of semantic information. In this paper, we introduce such a theory. We define semantic information as the syntactic information that a physical system has about its environment which is causally necessary for the system to maintain its own existence. ‘Causal necessity’ is defined in terms of counter-factual interventions which scramble correlations between the system and its environment, while ‘maintaining existence’ is defined in terms of the system’s ability to keep itself in a low entropy state. We also use recent results in non-equilibrium statistical physics to analyse semantic information from a thermodynamic point of view. Our framework is grounded in the intrinsic dynamics of a system coupled to an environment, and is applicable to any physical system, living or otherwise. It leads to formal definitions of several concepts that have been intuitively understood to be related to semantic information, including ‘value of information’, ‘semantic content’ and ‘agency’.

 

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328394982_Semantic_information_autonomous_agency_and_non-equilibrium_statistical_physics

Annunci
13
Mag
19

Hello World: Being Human in the Age of Algorithms (Hannah Fry)

via Hello World: Being Human in the Age of Algorithms (Hannah Fry)

A look inside the algorithms that are shaping our lives and the dilemmas they bring with them.

If you were accused of a crime, who would you rather decide your sentence―a mathematically consistent algorithm incapable of empathy or a compassionate human judge prone to bias and error? What if you want to buy a driverless car and must choose between one programmed to save as many lives as possible and another that prioritizes the lives of its own passengers? And would you agree to share your family’s full medical history if you were told that it would help researchers find a cure for cancer?

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2018/sep/29/hello-world-hannah-fry-review-artificial-intelligence-algorithms

13
Mag
19

Attack Tolerance of Link Prediction Algorithms: How to Hide Your Relations in a Social Network

via Attack Tolerance of Link Prediction Algorithms: How to Hide Your Relations in a Social Network

Attack Tolerance of Link Prediction Algorithms: How to Hide Your Relations in a Social Network
Link prediction is one of the fundamental research problems in network analysis. Intuitively, it involves identifying the edges that are most likely to be added to a given network, or the edges that appear to be missing from the network when in fact they are present. Various algorithms have been proposed to solve this problem over the past decades. For all their benefits, such algorithms raise serious privacy concerns, as they could be used to expose a connection between two individuals who wish to keep their relationship private. With this in mind, we investigate the ability of such individuals to evade link prediction algorithms.

https://arxiv.org/abs/1809.00152

13
Mag
19

Connectivity and complex systems: learning from a multi-disciplinary perspective

via Connectivity and complex systems: learning from a multi-disciplinary perspective

Connectivity and complex systems: learning from a multi-disciplinary perspective

In recent years, parallel developments in disparate disciplines have focused on what has come to be termed connectivity; a concept used in understanding and describing complex systems. Conceptualisations and operationalisations of connectivity have evolved largely within their disciplinary boundaries, yet similarities in this concept and its application among disciplines are evident. However, any implementation of the concept of connectivity carries with it both ontological and epistemological constraints, which leads us to ask if there is one type or set of approach(es) to connectivity that might be applied to all disciplines. In this review we explore four ontological and epistemological challenges in using connectivity to understand complex systems from the standpoint of widely different disciplines. These are: (i) defining the fundamental unit for the study of connectivity; (ii) separating structural connectivity from functional connectivity; (iii) understanding emergent behaviour; and (iv) measuring connectivity. We draw upon discipline-specific insights from Computational Neuroscience, Ecology, Geomorphology, Neuroscience, Social Network Science and Systems Biology to explore the use of connectivity among these disciplines. We evaluate how a connectivity-based approach has generated new understanding of structural-functional relationships that characterise complex systems and propose a ‘common toolbox’ underpinned by network-based approaches that can advance connectivity studies by overcoming existing constraints.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s41109-018-0067-2

13
Mag
19

Artificial Intelligence Crime: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of Foreseeable Threats and Solutions

Abstract

Artificial intelligence (AI) research and regulation seek to balance the benefits of innovation against any potential harms and disruption. However, one unintended consequence of the recent surge in AI research is the potential re-orientation of AI technologies to facilitate criminal acts, term in this article AI-Crime (AIC). AIC is theoretically feasible thanks to published experiments in automating fraud targeted at social media users, as well as demonstrations of AI-driven manipulation of simulated markets. However, because AIC is still a relatively young and inherently interdisciplinary area—spanning socio-legal studies to formal science—there is little certainty of what an AIC future might look like. This article offers the first systematic, interdisciplinary literature analysis of the foreseeable threats of AIC, providing ethicists, policy-makers, and law enforcement organisations with a synthesis of the current problems, and a possible solution space.




Time is real? I think not

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