Author Archive for Alessandro Cerboni

14
Nov
20

The Extended Theory of Cognitive Creativity

This edited volume focuses on the hypothesis that performativity is not a property confined to certain specific human skills, or to certain specific acts of language, nor an accidental enrichment due to creative intelligence. Instead, the executive and motor component of cognitive behavior should be considered an intrinsic part of the physiological functioning of the mind, and as endowed with self-generative power. Performativity, in this theoretical context, can be defined as a constituent component of cognitive processes. The material action allowing us to interact with reality is both the means by which the subject knows the surrounding world and one through which he experiments with the possibilities of his body. This proposal is rooted in models now widely accepted in the philosophy of mind and language; in fact, it focuses on a space of awareness that is not in the individual, or outside it, but is determined by the species-specific ways in which the body acts on the world. This theoretical hypothesis will be pursued through the latest interdisciplinary methodology typical of cognitive science, that coincide with the five sections in which the book is organized: Embodied, enactivist, philosophical approaches; Aesthetics approaches; Naturalistic and evolutionary approaches; Neuroscientific approaches; Linguistics approaches. This book is intended for: linguists, philosophers, psychologists, cognitive scientists, scholars of art and aesthetics, performing artists, researchers in embodied cognition, especially enactivists and students of the extended mind.

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1Om1x7E8FsHzMvmtJZ2D_C4u4cgCb6DOT/view

14
Nov
20

Reimagining ethical leadershipas a relational, contextual andpolitical practice

Helena Liu
Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria, Australia

Abstract

Interest in ethical leadership has been spurred by the widespread reporting of corporate malfeasance and corruption in the last decade. Although ethical leadership theories have highlighted the importance of ethical considerations in leadership, the dominant discourses of this field tend to treat ethical leadership as individualised, decontextualised and power-neutral. The purpose of this article is to address these limitations of the mainstream literature through a reimagination of ethical leadership research, development and practice grounded in a feminist, communitarian and corporeal ethic. This approach, I propose, has the potential to reorient
leadership as a collective ethico-political project exercised towards the goals of equality, justice and emancipation.

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0Bz8cVS8LoO7OZGNSVzMzdXdEdEk/view

14
Nov
20

Ethical Leadership: A review and future directions

Our literature review focuses on the emerging construct of ethical leadership and compares this construct with related concepts that share a common concern for a moral dimension of leadership (e.g., spiritual, authentic, and transformational leadership). Drawing broadly from the intersection of the ethics and leadership literature, we offer propositions about the antecedents and outcomes of ethical leadership. We also identify issues and questions to be addressed in the future and discuss their implications for research and practice. Our review indicates that ethical leadership remains largely unexplored, offering researchers opportunities for new discoveries and leaders opportunities to improve their effectiveness.

Ethical Leadership: A review and future directions

08
Nov
20

Risk Orientations and Policy Frames

Abstract

In this article, we examine the effect of citizens’ risk orientations on policy choices that are framed in various ways. We introduce an original risk orientations scale and test for the relationship between risk orientations and policy preferences using an original survey experiment. We find that individuals with higher levels of risk acceptance are more likely to prefer probabilistic outcomes as opposed to certain outcomes. Mortality and survival frames influence the choices citizens make, but so does our individual-difference measure of risk acceptance. Finally, using a unique within-subject design, we find that risk acceptance undercuts susceptibility to framing effects across successive framing scenarios. The findings suggest that citizens’ risk orientations are consequential in determining their policy views and their susceptibility to framing effects.

https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1017/S0022381609990806

PDF] Risk Orientation, Risk Exposure, and Policy Opinions: The Case of Free  Trade | Semantic Scholar
08
Nov
20

Neurocognitive correlates of liberalism and conservatism

David M AmodioJohn T JostSarah L Master & Cindy M Yee 

Abstract

Political scientists and psychologists have noted that, on average, conservatives show more structured and persistent cognitive styles, whereas liberals are more responsive to informational complexity, ambiguity and novelty. We tested the hypothesis that these profiles relate to differences in general neurocognitive functioning using event-related potentials, and found that greater liberalism was associated with stronger conflict-related anterior cingulate activity, suggesting greater neurocognitive sensitivity to cues for altering a habitual response pattern.

https://www.nature.com/articles/nn1979

08
Nov
20

Red Brain, Blue Brain: Evaluative Processes Differ in Democrats and Republicans

Abstract:

Liberals and conservatives exhibit different cognitive styles and converging lines of evidence suggest that biology influences differences in their political attitudes and beliefs. In particular, a recent study of young adults suggests that liberals and conservatives have significantly different brain structure, with liberals showing increased gray matter volume in the anterior cingulate cortex, and conservatives showing increased gray matter volume in the in the amygdala. Here, we explore differences in brain function in liberals and conservatives by matching publicly-available voter records to 82 subjects who performed a risk-taking task during functional imaging. Although the risk-taking behavior of Democrats (liberals) and Republicans (conservatives) did not differ, their brain activity did. Democrats showed significantly greater activity in the left insula, while Republicans showed significantly greater activity in the right amygdala. In fact, a two parameter model of partisanship based on amygdala and insula activations yields a better fitting model of partisanship than a well-established model based on parental socialization of party identification long thought to be one of the core findings of political science. These results suggest that liberals and conservatives engage different cognitive processes when they think about risk, and they support recent evidence that conservatives show greater sensitivity to threatening stimuli.


https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0052970

07
Nov
20

The Manufacture of Political Echo Chambers by Follow Train Abuse on Twitter

Christopher Torres-LugoKai-Cheng YangFilippo Menczer

A growing body of evidence points to critical vulnerabilities of social media, such as the emergence of partisan echo chambers and the viral spread of misinformation. We show that these vulnerabilities are amplified by abusive behaviors associated with so-called ”follow trains” on Twitter, in which long lists of like-minded accounts are mentioned for others to follow. This leads to the formation of highly dense and hierarchical echo chambers. We present the first systematic analysis of U.S. political train networks, which involve many thousands of hyper-partisan accounts. These accounts engage in various suspicious behaviors, including some that violate platform policies: we find evidence of inauthentic automated accounts, artificial inflation of friends and followers, and abnormal content deletion. The networks are also responsible for amplifying toxic content from low-credibility and conspiratorial sources. Platforms may be reluctant to curb this kind of abuse for fear of being accused of political bias. As a result, the political echo chambers manufactured by follow trains grow denser and train accounts accumulate influence; even political leaders occasionally engage with them.

https://arxiv.org/abs/2010.13691v1
The Manufacture of Political Echo Chambers by Follow Train Abuse on Twitter | Papers | Scoop.it
07
Nov
20

Patterns of ties in problem-solving networks and their dynamic properties

Abstract

Understanding the functions carried out by network subgraphs is important to revealing the organizing principles of diverse complex networks. Here, we study this question in the context of collaborative problem-solving, which is central to a variety of domains from engineering and medicine to economics and social planning. We analyze the frequency of all three- and four-node subgraphs in diverse real problem-solving networks. The results reveal a strong association between a dynamic property of network subgraphs—synchronizability—and the frequency and significance of these subgraphs in problem-solving networks. In particular, we show that highly-synchronizable subgraphs are overrepresented in the networks, while poorly-synchronizable subgraphs are underrepresented, suggesting that dynamical properties affect their prevalence, and thus the global structure of networks. We propose the possibility that selective pressures that favor more synchronizable subgraphs could account for their abundance in problem-solving networks. The empirical results also show that unrelated problem-solving networks display very similar local network structure, implying that network subgraphs could represent organizational routines that enable better coordination and control of problem-solving activities. The findings could also have potential implications in understanding the functionality of network subgraphs in other information-processing networks, including biological and social networks.

Dan Braha

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-75221-3

figure1
02
Nov
20

Real-time tracking of self-reported symptoms to predict potential COVID-19

Abstract

A total of 2,618,862 participants reported their potential symptoms of COVID-19 on a smartphone-based app. Among the 18,401 who had undergone a SARS-CoV-2 test, the proportion of participants who reported loss of smell and taste was higher in those with a positive test result (4,668 of 7,178 individuals; 65.03%) than in those with a negative test result (2,436 of 11,223 participants; 21.71%) (odds ratio = 6.74; 95% confidence interval = 6.31–7.21). A model combining symptoms to predict probable infection was applied to the data from all app users who reported symptoms (805,753) and predicted that 140,312 (17.42%) participants are likely to have COVID-19.

figure1

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-0916-2

02
Nov
20

Sfide di fronte a un vaccino COVID-19: una prospettiva secondo la scienza comportamentale

La pandemia di coronavirus ha stimolato sforzi senza precedenti per trovare un vaccino. Miliardi sono stati investiti nello sviluppo, con scadenze lunghe anni che sono crollate in mesi . Un vaccino è ampiamente considerato uno degli strumenti essenziali per porre fine alla crisi attuale. Ci sono non meno di 199 vaccini in fase di sviluppo , 24 dei quali sono già in sperimentazione clinica.

Ma, allo stesso tempo, ci sono state crescenti preoccupazioni sul fatto che molte persone non prenderanno un vaccino COVID-19 quando arriverà. Un recente sondaggio ha mostrato che un americano su tre non tenterebbe di vaccinarsi; un altro ha dimostrato che uno su cinque si rifiutava attivamente di farlo. Ciò significa che i paesi potrebbero non riuscire a raggiungere un livello di assorbimento necessario per l’immunità della mandria, che si verifica quando vengono vaccinate un numero sufficiente di persone per arrestare efficacemente la diffusione del virus (proteggendo anche coloro che non hanno ricevuto la vaccinazione).

Razionalizzazione: la razionalizzazione può verificarsi quando sappiamo che le nostre azioni possono comportare un aumento del rischio, ma le eseguiamo comunque. Risolviamo questa tensione cambiando le nostre convinzioni: ad esempio, pensando che un’azione in realtà non sia troppo rischiosa dopotutto. Il fatto stesso che dobbiamo funzionare in un mondo pre-vaccino ci spinge a pensare che abbiamo bisogno di un vaccino in meno, dal momento che riduciamo i rischi presenti in quel mondo.

Ci sono caratteristiche specifiche di COVID-19 che rendono più probabile la razionalizzazione. In primo luogo, c’è il fatto che molte persone infette non presentano alcun sintomo. Uno studio ufficiale su 20.000 famiglie in Inghilterra ha rilevato che circa il 70% dei casi era asintomatico; altri studi hanno prodotto stime di circa il 40-50% . In secondo luogo, i sintomi noti di COVID-19 si sono espansi dal nucleo iniziale di febbre e tosse; la malattia sembra presentarsi in molti modi diversi .




Time is real? I think not

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